Pyridostigmine Bromide
featured

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 318595

CAS#: 101-26-8

Description: Pyridostigmine bromide is a cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than neostigmine. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.


Chemical Structure

img
Pyridostigmine Bromide
CAS# 101-26-8

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 318595
Name: Pyridostigmine Bromide
CAS#: 101-26-8
Chemical Formula: C9H13BrN2O2
Exact Mass: 0.00
Molecular Weight: 261.120
Elemental Analysis: C, 41.40; H, 5.02; Br, 30.60; N, 10.73; O, 12.25

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
100g USD -1
1g USD 150
2g USD 250
5g USD 450
10g USD 650
20g USD 950
50g USD 1650
Bulk inquiry

Synonym: Pyridostigmine Bromide; Mestinon; Regonol; Kalimin; Pyridostigmine Br, Pyridostigmine;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (1-methylpyridin-1-ium-3-yl) N,N-dimethylcarbamate;bromide

InChi Key: VNYBTNPBYXSMOO-UHFFFAOYSA-M

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C9H13N2O2.BrH/c1-10(2)9(12)13-8-5-4-6-11(3)7-8;/h4-7H,1-3H3;1H/q+1;/p-1

SMILES Code: C[N+]1=CC=CC(=C1)OC(=O)N(C)C.[Br-]

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO and water

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

More Info:

Product Data:
Biological target: Pyridostigmine bromide binds reversibly to acetylcholinesterase active sites in the peripheral nervous system, thereby preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine. This leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses and facilitates transmission of impulses across the neuromuscular junction.
In vitro activity: Pyridostigmine bromide effectively inhibited AChE activity in neural SH-SY5Y cells. Pyridostigmine bromide did not induce oxidative stress at lower concentrations but exhibited genotoxic effects at a slightly higher concentration. At the minimal therapeutic dose, pyridostigmine bromide promoted cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, and telomerase gene upregulation. Pyridostigmine bromide exposure in neural cells did not lead to extensive toxicity or indicative neurodegenerative patterns in this study. Reference: Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2017 Nov;823:1-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28985942/
In vivo activity: C57BL/6 mice received doses of pyridostigmine bromide physiologically similar to those administered to Gulf War veterans with Gulf War Illness. Pyridostigmine bromide exposure reduced the numbers of enteric neurons, which are responsible for mediating colonic motility reside within the myenteric plexus. Pyridostigmine bromide exposure caused functional and anatomical dysfunction, promoting impaired motility within the colon. Reference: Adv Biol (Weinh). 2023 May;7(5):e2200254. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36802210/

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
DMSO 50.0 191.48
Water 8.8 33.70

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 261.12 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
Formulation protocol: 1. Azzolin VF, Barbisan F, Lenz LS, Teixeira CF, Fortuna M, Duarte T, Duarte MMFM, da Cruz IBM. Effects of Pyridostigmine bromide on SH-SY5Y cells: An in vitro neuroblastoma neurotoxicity model. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2017 Nov;823:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Aug 31. PMID: 28985942. 2. Lanza A, Stellavato A, Heulfe I, Landi C, Gombos F, Cirillo N. Serum of patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris impairs keratinocyte wound repair in vitro: a time-lapse study on the efficacy of methylprednisolone and pyridostigmine bromide. Oral Dis. 2009 Oct;15(7):478-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01574.x. Epub 2009 Jun 10. PMID: 19519621. 3. Collier CA, Foncerrada S, Clevenger AJ, Shetty A, Raghavan SA. Acute Exposure to Pyridostigmine Bromide Disrupts Cholinergic Myenteric Neuroimmune Function in Mice. Adv Biol (Weinh). 2023 May;7(5):e2200254. doi: 10.1002/adbi.202200254. Epub 2023 Feb 19. PMID: 36802210. 4. Burzynski HE, Macht VA, Woodruff JL, Crawford JN, Erichsen JM, Piroli GG, Grillo CA, Fadel JR, Reagan LP. Pyridostigmine bromide elicits progressive and chronic impairments in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of male rats. Neurobiol Stress. 2022 Apr 15;18:100446. doi: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2022.100446. PMID: 35573808; PMCID: PMC9095881.
In vitro protocol: 1. Azzolin VF, Barbisan F, Lenz LS, Teixeira CF, Fortuna M, Duarte T, Duarte MMFM, da Cruz IBM. Effects of Pyridostigmine bromide on SH-SY5Y cells: An in vitro neuroblastoma neurotoxicity model. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2017 Nov;823:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Aug 31. PMID: 28985942. 2. Lanza A, Stellavato A, Heulfe I, Landi C, Gombos F, Cirillo N. Serum of patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris impairs keratinocyte wound repair in vitro: a time-lapse study on the efficacy of methylprednisolone and pyridostigmine bromide. Oral Dis. 2009 Oct;15(7):478-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01574.x. Epub 2009 Jun 10. PMID: 19519621.
In vivo protocol: 1. Collier CA, Foncerrada S, Clevenger AJ, Shetty A, Raghavan SA. Acute Exposure to Pyridostigmine Bromide Disrupts Cholinergic Myenteric Neuroimmune Function in Mice. Adv Biol (Weinh). 2023 May;7(5):e2200254. doi: 10.1002/adbi.202200254. Epub 2023 Feb 19. PMID: 36802210. 2. Burzynski HE, Macht VA, Woodruff JL, Crawford JN, Erichsen JM, Piroli GG, Grillo CA, Fadel JR, Reagan LP. Pyridostigmine bromide elicits progressive and chronic impairments in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of male rats. Neurobiol Stress. 2022 Apr 15;18:100446. doi: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2022.100446. PMID: 35573808; PMCID: PMC9095881.

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.
=
x
x
g/mol

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.
x
=
x

1: Zhang YL, Li YP. [Simultaneous determination of scopolamine hydrobromide,
atropine sulfate, ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in
Zhichuanling oral liquid with HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013
Oct;38(19):3291-4. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 24422394.


2: Pilla R, Held HE, Landon CS, Dean JB. High doses of pseudoephedrine
hydrochloride accelerate onset of CNS oxygen toxicity seizures in unanesthetized
rats. Neuroscience. 2013 Aug 29;246:391-6. doi:
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.04.035. Epub 2013 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 23624060.


3: Xuan X, Huang L, Pan X, Li N. [Simultaneous determination of five cold
medicine ingredients in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets by pH/organic solvent double-gradient high
performance liquid chromatography]. Se Pu. 2013 Feb;31(2):133-8. Chinese. PubMed
PMID: 23697177.


4: El-Didamony AM, Gouda AA. A novel spectrofluorimetric method for the assay of
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations via derivatization
with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. Luminescence. 2011 Nov-Dec;26(6):510-7. doi:
10.1002/bio.1261. Epub 2010 Nov 8. PubMed PMID: 22162453.


5: Yu LP, Wang XK, Luo JB. [Determination of ephedrine hydrochloride,
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and methylephedrine hydrochloride in maxingshigan
decoction by CE]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011 Apr;34(4):620-3. Chinese. PubMed PMID:
21809550.


6: Zeeshan F, Bukhari NI. Development and evaluation of a novel modified-release
pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine
hydrochloride as model drugs. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2010 Jun;11(2):910-6. doi:
10.1208/s12249-010-9456-2. Epub 2010 May 22. PubMed PMID: 20496016; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2902326.


7: Clinical Research Coordination Group of Guaifenesin Compound Pseudoephedrine
Hydrochloride Oral Solution, Lu Q. [A prospective multicenter randomized
controlled clinical study on the efficacy and safety of Guaifenesin compound
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010
Mar;48(3):204-7. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20426957.


8: Kikano G. Safety and efficacy of extended-release guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine
hydrochloride for adjunctive symptom relief of acute respiratory infections.
Postgrad Med. 2009 May;121(3):173-5. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2009.05.2018. PubMed PMID:
19491556.


9: Yang ZY, Lu Y, Tang X. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride sustained-release pellets
prepared by a combination of hot-melt subcoating and polymer coating. Drug Dev
Ind Pharm. 2008 Dec;34(12):1323-30. doi: 10.1080/03639040802084938 . PubMed PMID:
18785047.


10: LaForce C, Gentile DA, Skoner DP. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group,
multicenter, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of
extended-release guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine hydrochloride for symptom relief as
an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections.
Postgrad Med. 2008 Jul;120(2):53-9. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2008.07.1791. PubMed PMID:
18654069.


11: Chitlange SS, Sakarkar DM, Wankhede SB, Wadodkar SG. High performance thin
layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Ibuprofen and
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 May-Jun;70(3):398-400.
doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.43018. PubMed PMID: 20046759; PubMed Central PMCID:
PMC2792507.


12: Zayed SI, Issa YM, Hussein A. Construction and performance characterization
of ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine
hydrochloride applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques. Ann Chim.
2006 Jul-Aug;96(7-8):421-33. PubMed PMID: 16948431.


13: Likar MD, Mansour HL, Harwood JW. Development and validation of a dissolution
test for a once-a-day combination tablet of immediate-release cetirizine
dihydrochloride and extended-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. J Pharm
Biomed Anal. 2005 Sep 15;39(3-4):543-51. PubMed PMID: 15975755.


14: Gu X, Li H, Macnair KR, Simons FE, Simons KJ. Simultaneous analysis of the
H1-antihistamine acrivastine and the decongestant pseudoephedrine hydrochloride
by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Apr
1;37(4):663-7. Epub 2004 Dec 25. PubMed PMID: 15797786.


15: Safak MA, Kiliç R, Haberal I, Göçmen H, Ozeri C. A comparative study of
azithromycin and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride for otitis media with effusion in
children. Acta Otolaryngol. 2001 Dec;121(8):925-9. PubMed PMID: 11813896.


16: Ekpe A, Tong JH, Rodriguez L. High-performance liquid chromatographic method
development and validation for the simultaneous quantitation of naproxen sodium
and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride impurities. J Chromatogr Sci. 2001
Mar;39(3):81-6. PubMed PMID: 11277256.


17: Altuntas TG, Zanooz SS, Nebioglu D. Quantitative determination of acrivastine
and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation by high
performance liquid chromatography and derivative spectrophotometry. J Pharm
Biomed Anal. 1998 May;17(1):103-9. PubMed PMID: 9608432.


18: Hindioğlu U, Sahin S. Nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption caused by
pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Mar;38(3):499-500. PubMed
PMID: 9520039.


19: Dash AK. Determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in dosage forms by
liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994 Dec;12(12):1601-6. PubMed PMID:
7696386.


20: Akhtar MJ, Khan S, Hafiz M. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for
the determination of paracetamol, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine
hydrochloride. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994 Mar;12(3):379-82. PubMed PMID: 8031938.