Apraclonidine HCl
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MedKoo CAT#: 317197

CAS#: 73218-79-8 (HCl)

Description: Apraclonidine HCl, also known as Iopidine HCl, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. It is an α2-adrenergic agonist and a weak alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist. Upon ocular administration, apraclonidine enhances aqueous humor uveoscleral outflow and decreases aqueous production by vasoconstriction.


Chemical Structure

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Apraclonidine HCl
CAS# 73218-79-8 (HCl)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 317197
Name: Apraclonidine HCl
CAS#: 73218-79-8 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C9H11Cl3N4
Exact Mass: 280.0049
Molecular Weight: 281.57
Elemental Analysis: C, 38.39; H, 3.94; Cl, 37.77; N, 19.90

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
10.0mg USD 450.0 2 Weeks
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Related CAS #: 66711-21-5 (free base)  

Synonym: Iopidine HCl, Iopidine hydrochloride, Apraclonidine HCl, Apraclonidine hydrochloride

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 2,6-dichloro-N1-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene-1,4-diamine hydrochloride

InChi Key: OTQYGBJVDRBCHC-UHFFFAOYSA-N

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C9H10Cl2N4.ClH/c10-6-3-5(12)4-7(11)8(6)15-9-13-1-2-14-9;/h3-4H,1-2,12H2,(H2,13,14,15);1H

SMILES Code: ClC1=CC(N)=CC(Cl)=C1NC2=NCCN2.Cl

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 281.57 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

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1: Kauh CY, Bursztyn LL. Positive Apraclonidine Test in Horner Syndrome Caused by Thalamic Hemorrhage. J Neuroophthalmol. 2015 Sep;35(3):287-8. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000222. PubMed PMID: 25768246.

2: Eguchi R, Takagi C, Ishikawa N, Ando H, Ando N. [Factors influencing intraocular pressure elevation on the first postoperative day following small-incision cataract surgery--the effect of apraclonidine]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2014 Sep;118(9):768-72. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 25318185.

3: Shin RK, Cheek AG. Teaching NeuroImages: Positive apraclonidine test in Horner syndrome. Neurology. 2011 May 17;76(20):e100. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821a4454. PubMed PMID: 21576682.

4: Cooper-Knock J, Pepper I, Hodgson T, Sharrack B. Early diagnosis of Horner syndrome using topical apraclonidine. J Neuroophthalmol. 2011 Sep;31(3):214-6. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0b013e31821a91fe. PubMed PMID: 21566530.

5: Besada E, Reed K, Najman P, Shechtman D, Hardigan P. Pupillometry study of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and apraclonidine 0.5%. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;51(12):1690-5. doi: 10.1177/0091270010385932. Epub 2011 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 21406599.

6: Chu CJ, Ferris JD. Confirmation of Horner's syndrome using apraclonidine eye drops. Postgrad Med J. 2011 Jun;87(1028):440. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2010.113514. Epub 2011 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 21386103.

7: Cambron M, Maertens H, Crevits L. Apraclonidine and my pupil. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Oct;21(5):347-51. doi: 10.1007/s10286-011-0118-6. Epub 2011 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 21384091.

8: Sueke H, Chandna A. Using apraclonidine in diagnosing Horner syndrome in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May;149(5):869; author reply 870. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.01.023. PubMed PMID: 20399934.

9: Lebas M, Seror J, Debroucker T. Positive apraclonidine test 36 hours after acute onset of horner syndrome in dorsolateral pontomedullary stroke. J Neuroophthalmol. 2010 Mar;30(1):12-7. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0b013e3181b1b41f. Review. PubMed PMID: 20182200.

10: Kocabora M, Gocmez E, Taskapili M. Topical apraclonidine to diagnose Bernard-Horner syndrome. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 2009;(312):9-15. PubMed PMID: 19927485.