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MedKoo CAT#: 205641
Description: TAS-102 is an investigational drug candidate for metastatic colorectal cancer. It contains trifluridine (TFT) and Tipiracil hydrochloride (TTP) in a molar ratio of 1;0.5. Trifluridine is a nucleoside analog, and tipiracil hydrochloride is a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, which prevents rapid metabolism of trifluiridine, increasing the bioavailability of trifluiridine. After oral administration of TAS-102, TFT is phosphorylated to the active monophosphate form TF-TMP, which binds covalently to the active site of thymidylate synthase, thereby reducing the nucleotide pool levels required for DNA replication. Furthermore, the triphosphate form TF-TTP can be incorporated into DNA, which induces DNA fragmentation and leads to the inhibition of tumor growth. TPI exhibits a dual effect: 1) an anti-angiogenic effect mediated through the inhibition of thymidine phosphorylase, which plays an important role in nucleotide metabolism and a variety of development processes, including angiogenesis, 2) increased bioavailability of the normally short-lived antimetabolite TFT by preventing its degradation into the inactive form trifluorothymine (TF-Thy). The synergistic effect of the components in TAS-102 may demonstrate antitumor activity in 5-FU-resistant cancer cells.
MedKoo Cat#: 205641
Name: TAS-102 (Trifluridine/Tipiracil HCl)
Chemical Formula: C19H23Cl2F3N6O7
Molecular Weight: 575.3232
Elemental Analysis: C, 39.67; H, 4.03; Cl, 12.32; F, 9.91; N, 14.61; O, 19.47
Related CAS #: 733030-01-8 (183204-72-0 (Tipiracil HCl) 70-00-8 (Trifluridine)
Synonym: TAS102, TAS-102, TAS 102, Trifluridine/tipiracil hydrochloride
IUPAC/Chemical Name: 4-hydroxy-1-((2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2(1H)-one compound with 5-chloro-6-((2-iminopyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diol (1:1) hydrochloride
InChi Key: PLIXOHWIPDGJEI-OJSHLMAWSA-N
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C10H11F3N2O5.C9H11ClN4O2.ClH/c11-10(12,13)4-2-15(9(19)14-8(4)18)7-1-5(17)6(3-16)20-7;10-7-5(12-9(16)13-8(7)15)4-14-3-1-2-6(14)11;/h2,5-7,16-17H,1,3H2,(H,14,18,19);11H,1-4H2,(H2,12,13,15,16);1H/t5-,6+,7+;;/m0../s1
SMILES Code: O=C1NC(C(C(F)(F)F)=CN1[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)C2)=O.O=C3NC(C(Cl)=C(CN4C(CCC4)=N)N3)=O.[H]Cl
Since the synthesis of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in 1957, fluoropyrimidines have been a very useful tool in the treatment of many types of cancer. Due to the drawbacks of 5-FU therapy, such as having to be administered over long periods of time via intravenous infusion and the development of resistance in tumors, the need for more convenient and efficacious fluoropyrimidine therapy has been desired. The fluoropyrimidine component of TAS-102, trifluridine, was first synthesized in 1964 by Heidelberger et al. By the late 1960s, Phase I and Phase II clinical trials of intravenous trifluridine alone initially proved to be disappointing. Its pharmacokinetic profile during these clinical trials showed that the drug exhibited a very short half-life while in serum (12 minutes post-injection). In response to its pharmacokinetic properties, adjustments in the dosing regimen demonstrated significant therapeutic benefits in patients with breast cancer and colon cancer; with this new regimen, doses would be given every three hours to total a daily amount of 2.5 mg/kg/day for 8 to 13 days, and as a result, eight out of 23 breast cancer patients were reported to have a therapeutic response while one in six patients with colon cancer showed a near complete response to therapy. Success of trifluridine as an effective anti-cancer agent was short lived, however, due to rapid tumor recurrence upon regression of therapy. Trifluridine therapy in oncology was thus halted. Researchers later found out that trifluridine, when taken orally, was broken down into the inactive metabolites 5-trifluoromethyluracil and 5-trifluoromethyl-2,4(1H,3,H)-pyrimidinedione (FTY) during its extensive first pass metabolism in the liver via the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP). It was then hypothesized that orally administered FTD concentrations could be increased and maintained if the drug was given with a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI). (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TAS-102)
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2: Doi T, Yoshino T, Fuse N, Boku N, Yamazaki K, Koizumi W, Shimada K, Takinishi Y, Ohtsu A. Phase I study of TAS-102 and irinotecan combination therapy in Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2015 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26163340.
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12: Lee HJ, Oh SJ, Lee EJ, Chung JH, Kim Y, Ryu JS, Kim SY, Lee SJ, Moon DH, Kim TW. Positron emission tomography imaging of human colon cancer xenografts in mice with [18F]fluorothymidine after TAS-102 treatment. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015 May;75(5):1005-13. doi: 10.1007/s00280-015-2718-7. Epub 2015 Mar 17. PubMed PMID: 25776904.
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