WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 205932

CAS#: 315183-21-2

Description: PAC-1 is known as VO-100 and procaspase activating compound-1; which selectively induces apoptosis, or cell suicide, in cancerous cells. PAC-1 has shown good results in mouse models and is being further evaluated for use in humans. In 2010 a published study showed PAC-1 to be safe to research dogs, and a second study published later that same year reported that a PAC-1 derivative (called S-PAC-1) was well tolerated in a small Phase I Clinical Trial of pet dogs with lymphoma. Even at low doses of S-PAC-1, tumors regressed in 1/6 dogs, and the disease was stabilized (no additional tumor growth) in 3/6 dogs.

Chemical Structure

CAS# 315183-21-2

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 205932
Name: PAC-1
CAS#: 315183-21-2
Chemical Formula: C23H28N4O2
Exact Mass: 392.22123
Molecular Weight: 392.49
Elemental Analysis: C, 70.38; H, 7.19; N, 14.27; O, 8.15

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
100.0mg USD 450.0 2 Weeks
200.0mg USD 850.0 2 Weeks
500.0mg USD 1450.0 2 Weeks
1.0g USD 2450.0 2 Weeks
2.0g USD 3950.0 2 Weeks
5.0g USD 5850.0 2 Weeks
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Synonym: PAC1; PAC 1; PAC1; VO-100; VO100; VO 100; procaspase activating compound-1

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (E)-N'-(3-allyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)acetohydrazide


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C23H28N4O2/c1-2-7-20-10-6-11-21(23(20)29)16-24-25-22(28)18-27-14-12-26(13-15-27)17-19-8-4-3-5-9-19/h2-6,8-11,16,29H,1,7,12-15,17-18H2,(H,25,28)/b24-16+


Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98%

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >5 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 392.49 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

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1: Inglott MA, Lerner EA, Pilowsky PM, Farnham MM. Activation of PAC(1) and VPAC receptor subtypes elicits differential physiological responses from sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Nov;167(5):1089-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02045.x. PubMed PMID: 22612450; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3492989.

2: Hsu DC, Roth HS, West DC, Botham RC, Novotny CJ, Schmid SC, Hergenrother PJ. Parallel synthesis and biological evaluation of 837 analogues of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1). ACS Comb Sci. 2012 Jan 9;14(1):44-50. doi: 10.1021/co2001372. Epub 2011 Oct 28. PubMed PMID: 22007686; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3253983.

3: Zhang X, Tan F, Duan CZ. [Effect of electro-needling at acupoints of the yangming meridian on the expression of PAC-1 and lower limb functions in acute cerebral infarction patients]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2011 Apr;31(4):483-6. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 21608218.

4: Fang LN, Chen XH, Wang QD, Zhang D, Zhao JJ, Long ZM, Gong P, Bi KS. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of PAC-1 in rat plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 Jan 5;54(1):225-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.07.042. Epub 2010 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 20828970.

5: Jiang YJ, Li XM, Wang HX, Kang LL, Zhu GH, Zhuang WC. [Influence of dipyridamole on expression of PAC-1 and CD62p in patients with malignant lymphoma]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Aug;18(4):923-6. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20723301.

6: Lucas PW, Schmit JM, Peterson QP, West DC, Hsu DC, Novotny CJ, Dirikolu L, Churchwell MI, Doerge DR, Garrett LD, Hergenrother PJ, Fan TM. Pharmacokinetics and derivation of an anticancer dosing regimen for PAC-1, a preferential small molecule activator of procaspase-3, in healthy dogs. Invest New Drugs. 2011 Oct;29(5):901-11. doi: 10.1007/s10637-010-9445-z. Epub 2010 May 25. PubMed PMID: 20499133; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3182491.

7: Song Z, Chen X, Zhang D, Gong P, Bi K. Isolation and structure elucidation of degradation products in the potential anticancer drug PAC-1. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Mar 11;51(4):965-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2009.10.007. Epub 2009 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 19889506.

8: Peterson QP, Hsu DC, Goode DR, Novotny CJ, Totten RK, Hergenrother PJ. Procaspase-3 activation as an anti-cancer strategy: structure-activity relationship of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) and its cellular co-localization with caspase-3. J Med Chem. 2009 Sep 24;52(18):5721-31. doi: 10.1021/jm900722z. PubMed PMID: 19708658; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2749958.

9: Hantgan RR, Stahle MC. Integrin priming dynamics: mechanisms of integrin antagonist-promoted alphaIIbbeta3:PAC-1 molecular recognition. Biochemistry. 2009 Sep 8;48(35):8355-65. doi: 10.1021/bi900475k. PubMed PMID: 19640007.

10: Lee SY, Kang MJ, Cha JK. Cilostazol reduces PAC-1 expression on platelets in ischemic stroke. J Clin Neurol. 2008 Dec;4(4):148-52. doi: 10.3988/jcn.2008.4.4.148. Epub 2008 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 19513289; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2686855.

11: Peterson QP, Goode DR, West DC, Ramsey KN, Lee JJ, Hergenrother PJ. PAC-1 activates procaspase-3 in vitro through relief of zinc-mediated inhibition. J Mol Biol. 2009 Apr 24;388(1):144-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.03.003. Epub 2009 Mar 10. PubMed PMID: 19281821; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2714579.

12: Fang LN, Chen XH, Song Z, Wang G, Zhao X, Ren L, Gong P, Bi KS. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of PAC-1 in rat plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009 Feb 20;49(2):447-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2008.11.024. Epub 2008 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 19135329.

13: Ren L, Bi K, Gong P, Cheng W, Song Z, Fang L, Chen X. Characterization of the in vivo and in vitro metabolic profile of PAC-1 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 Dec 1;876(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.10.006. Epub 2008 Oct 14. PubMed PMID: 18996064.

14: Kovacic P. Does structural commonality of metal complex formation by PAC-1 (anticancer), DHBNH (anti-HIV), AHL (autoinducer), and UCS1025A (anticancer) denote mechanistic similarity? Signal transduction and medical aspects. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2008;28(3):141-52. doi: 10.1080/10799890802084077 . Review. PubMed PMID: 18569522.

15: Jeffrey KL, Brummer T, Rolph MS, Liu SM, Callejas NA, Grumont RJ, Gillieron C, Mackay F, Grey S, Camps M, Rommel C, Gerondakis SD, Mackay CR. Positive regulation of immune cell function and inflammatory responses by phosphatase PAC-1. Nat Immunol. 2006 Mar;7(3):274-83. Epub 2006 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 16474395.

16: Rásó E, Tóvári J, Ladányi A, Varga N, Tímár J. Ligand-mimetic anti-alphaIIb beta3 antibody PAC-1 inhibits tyrosine signaling, proliferation and lung colonization of melanoma cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2005;11(4):218-23. Epub 2005 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 16388318.

17: Zhang Q, Muller M, Chen CH, Zeng L, Farooq A, Zhou MM. New insights into the catalytic activation of the MAPK phosphatase PAC-1 induced by its substrate MAPK ERK2 binding. J Mol Biol. 2005 Dec 9;354(4):777-88. Epub 2005 Oct 21. PubMed PMID: 16288922.

18: Givant-Horwitz V, Davidson B, Goderstad JM, Nesland JM, Tropé CG, Reich R. The PAC-1 dual specificity phosphatase predicts poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2004 May;93(2):517-23. PubMed PMID: 15099972.

19: Zhang Y, Guan DL, Xia CQ, Han ZY, Xu JJ, Gao JZ, Wu KR. [The relationship between the peripheral blood of CD61, CD63, PAC-1 and the transplant kidney function]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;41(12):881-4. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 14728824.

20: Kothapalli R, Yoder SJ, Kusmartseva I, Loughran TP Jr. Characterization of a variant of PAC-1 in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Protein Expr Purif. 2003 Nov;32(1):52-60. PubMed PMID: 14680939.


100.0mg / USD 450.0

Additional Information

PAC-1 (pronounced "pack one") was discovered at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign during a process that screened many chemicals for anti-tumor potential. This molecule, when delivered to cancer cells, signals the cells to self-destruct by activating an "executioner" protein, procaspase-3. Then, the activated executioner protein begins a cascade of events that destroys the machinery of the cell. (source: