WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.
MedKoo CAT#: 100070
Description: Azacitidine is a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue of cytidine with antineoplastic activity. Azacitidine is incorporated into DNA, where it reversibly inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby blocking DNA methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA by azacitidine may activate tumor suppressor genes silenced by hypermethylation, resulting in an antitumor effect. This agent is also incorporated into RNA, thereby disrupting normal RNA function and impairing tRNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase activity.
MedKoo Cat#: 100070
Chemical Formula: C8H12N4O5
Exact Mass: 244.08077
Molecular Weight: 244.2
Elemental Analysis: C, 39.35; H, 4.95; N, 22.94; O, 32.76
Synonym: U18496; U-18496; U 18496; Abbreviations: 5AC; 5AZC. 5-azacytidine; azacytidine; ladakamycin. US brand names: Mylosar; Vidaza.
IUPAC/Chemical Name: 4-amino-1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one
InChi Key: NMUSYJAQQFHJEW-KVTDHHQDSA-N
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C8H12N4O5/c9-7-10-2-12(8(16)11-7)6-5(15)4(14)3(1-13)17-6/h2-6,13-15H,1H2,(H2,9,11,16)/t3-,4-,5-,6-/m1/s1
SMILES Code: O=C1N([C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]2O)C=NC(N)=N1
According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azacitidine, Azacitidine is mainly used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), for which it received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on May 19, 2004; it is marketed as Vidaza. In a randomized controlled trial comparing azacitidine to supportive treatment of MDS, around 16% of people receiving the drug had a complete or partial responseÂ—blood cell counts and bone marrow morphology returning to normalÂ—and 2/3 patients who required blood transfusions before the study no longer needed them after receiving azacitidine. It can also be used in vitro to remove methyl groups from DNA. This may weaken the effects of gene silencing mechanisms that occurred prior to the methylation. Methylation events are therefore believed to secure the DNA in a silenced state. Demethylation may reduce the stability of silencing signals and thus confer relative gene activation.
VIDAZA (azacitidine for injection) contains azacitidine, which is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog of cytidine. Azacitidine is 4-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-s-triazin-2(1H)-one. The empirical formula is C8H12N4O5. The molecular weight is 244. Azacitidine is a white to off- white solid. Azacitidine was found to be insoluble in acetone, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone; slightly soluble in ethanol/water (50/50), propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol; sparingly soluble in water, water saturated octanol, 5% dextrose in water, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, normal saline and 5% Tween 80 in water; and soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The finished product is supplied in a sterile form for reconstitution as a suspension for subcutaneous injection or reconstitution as a solution with further dilution for intravenous infusion. Vials of VIDAZA contain 100 mg of azacitidine and 100 mg mannitol as a sterile lyophilized powder.
Mechanism of Action
VIDAZA is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog of cytidine. VIDAZA is believed to exert its antineoplastic effects by causing hypomethylation of DNA and direct cytotoxicity on abnormal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The concentration of azacitidine required for maximum inhibition of DNA methylationin vitro does not cause major suppression of DNA synthesis. Hypomethylation may restore normal function to genes that are critical for differentiation and proliferation. The cytotoxic effects of azacitidine cause the death of rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells that are no longer responsive to normal growth control mechanisms. Non-proliferating cells are relatively insensitive to azacitidine.
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