Aldoxorubicin HCl

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MedKoo CAT#: 201550

CAS#: 480998-12-7 (HCl)

Description: Aldoxorubicin, also known as INNO-206 and Doxo-EMCH, is the 6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative prodrug of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with antineoplastic activity. INNO-206 binds selectively to the cysteine-34 position of albumin via its maleimide moiety. Doxorubicin is released from the albumin carrier after cleavage of the acid-sensitive hydrazone linker within the acidic environment of tumors and, once located intracellularly, intercalates DNA, inhibits DNA synthesis, and induces apoptosis. Albumin tends to accumulate in solid tumors as a result of high metabolic turnover, rapid angiogenesis, hyervasculature, and impaired lymphatic drainage. Because of passive accumulation within tumors, this agent may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin while minimizing systemic toxicity.

Chemical Structure

Aldoxorubicin HCl
CAS# 480998-12-7 (HCl)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 201550
Name: Aldoxorubicin HCl
CAS#: 480998-12-7 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C37H43ClN4O13
Exact Mass:
Molecular Weight: 787.25
Elemental Analysis: C, 56.45; H, 5.51; Cl, 4.50; N, 7.12; O, 26.42

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Related CAS #: 1361644-26-9   480998-12-7 (HCl)   151038-96-9 (free base)    

Synonym: DOXO-EMCH; EMCH-Doxo; EMCH-doxorubicin; INNO206; INNO-206; INNO 206; INNO-206 HCl; Aldoxorubicin. Doxorubicin prodrug.

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (E)-N'-(1-((2S,4S)-4-(((2R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)-2,5,12-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,11-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydrotetracen-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylidene)-6-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexanehydrazide hydrochloride


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C37H42N4O13.ClH/c1-17-32(46)20(38)13-27(53-17)54-22-15-37(51,23(16-42)39-40-24(43)9-4-3-5-12-41-25(44)10-11-26(41)45)14-19-29(22)36(50)31-30(34(19)48)33(47)18-7-6-8-21(52-2)28(18)35(31)49;/h6-8,10-11,17,20,22,27,32,42,46,48,50-51H,3-5,9,12-16,38H2,1-2H3,(H,40,43);1H/b39-23+;/t17-,20-,22-,27-,32+,37-;/m0./s1

SMILES Code: O=C(CCCCCN1C(C=CC1=O)=O)N/N=C(CO)/[C@]2(O)CC3=C(C4=C(C(O)=C3[C@H](C2)O[C@@H]5O[C@H]([C@H]([C@H](C5)N)O)C)C(C6=C(C=CC=C6C4=O)OC)=O)O.[H]Cl

Appearance: Red solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 787.25 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

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1: Sheng Y, Xu J, You Y, Xu F, Chen Y. Acid-Sensitive Peptide-Conjugated Doxorubicin Mediates the Lysosomal Pathway of Apoptosis and Reverses Drug Resistance in Breast Cancer. Mol Pharm. 2015 Jul 6;12(7):2217-28. doi: 10.1021/mp500386y. Epub 2015 Jun 2. PubMed PMID: 26035464.

2: Mita MM, Natale RB, Wolin EM, Laabs B, Dinh H, Wieland S, Levitt DJ, Mita AC. Pharmacokinetic study of aldoxorubicin in patients with solid tumors. Invest New Drugs. 2015 Apr;33(2):341-8. doi: 10.1007/s10637-014-0183-5. Epub 2014 Nov 12. PubMed PMID: 25388939; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4387275.

3: Marrero L, Wyczechowska D, Musto AE, Wilk A, Vashistha H, Zapata A, Walker C, Velasco-Gonzalez C, Parsons C, Wieland S, Levitt D, Reiss K, Prakash O. Therapeutic efficacy of aldoxorubicin in an intracranial xenograft mouse model of human glioblastoma. Neoplasia. 2014 Oct 23;16(10):874-82. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2014.08.015. eCollection 2014 Oct. PubMed PMID: 25379024; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4212249.

4: Kratz F, Azab S, Zeisig R, Fichtner I, Warnecke A. Evaluation of combination therapy schedules of doxorubicin and an acid-sensitive albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic xenograft model. Int J Pharm. 2013 Jan 30;441(1-2):499-506. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 23149257.

5: Walker L, Perkins E, Kratz F, Raucher D. Cell penetrating peptides fused to a thermally targeted biopolymer drug carrier improve the delivery and antitumor efficacy of an acid-sensitive doxorubicin derivative. Int J Pharm. 2012 Oct 15;436(1-2):825-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.07.043. Epub 2012 Jul 28. PubMed PMID: 22850291; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3465682.

6: Kratz F, Warnecke A. Finding the optimal balance: challenges of improving conventional cancer chemotherapy using suitable combinations with nano-sized drug delivery systems. J Control Release. 2012 Dec 10;164(2):221-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.05.045. Epub 2012 Jun 13. Review. PubMed PMID: 22705248.

7: Sanchez E, Li M, Wang C, Nichols CM, Li J, Chen H, Berenson JR. Anti-myeloma effects of the novel anthracycline derivative INNO-206. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 15;18(14):3856-67. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-3130. Epub 2012 May 22. PubMed PMID: 22619306.

8: Kratz F, Elsadek B. Clinical impact of serum proteins on drug delivery. J Control Release. 2012 Jul 20;161(2):429-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.11.028. Epub 2011 Dec 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 22155554.

9: Elsadek B, Kratz F. Impact of albumin on drug delivery--new applications on the horizon. J Control Release. 2012 Jan 10;157(1):4-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.09.069. Epub 2011 Sep 16. Review. PubMed PMID: 21959118.

10: Kratz F, Fichtner I, Graeser R. Combination therapy with the albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin (INNO-206) and doxorubicin achieves complete remissions and improves tolerability in an ovarian A2780 xenograft model. Invest New Drugs. 2012 Aug;30(4):1743-9. doi: 10.1007/s10637-011-9686-5. Epub 2011 May 18. PubMed PMID: 21590366.

11: Boga C, Fiume L, Baglioni M, Bertucci C, Farina C, Kratz F, Manerba M, Naldi M, Di Stefano G. Characterisation of the conjugate of the (6-maleimidocaproyl)hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin with lactosaminated human albumin by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009 Oct 8;38(3):262-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2009.08.001. Epub 2009 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 19695327.

12: Graeser R, Esser N, Unger H, Fichtner I, Zhu A, Unger C, Kratz F. INNO-206, the (6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin), shows superior antitumor efficacy compared to doxorubicin in different tumor xenograft models and in an orthotopic pancreas carcinoma model. Invest New Drugs. 2010 Feb;28(1):14-9. doi: 10.1007/s10637-008-9208-2. Epub 2009 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 19148580.

13: Kratz F. Albumin as a drug carrier: design of prodrugs, drug conjugates and nanoparticles. J Control Release. 2008 Dec 18;132(3):171-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2008.05.010. Epub 2008 May 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 18582981.

14: Unger C, Häring B, Medinger M, Drevs J, Steinbild S, Kratz F, Mross K. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the (6-maleimidocaproyl)hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 15;13(16):4858-66. PubMed PMID: 17699865.

15: Lebrecht D, Walker UA. Role of mtDNA lesions in anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2007;7(2):108-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 17652814.

16: Kratz F. DOXO-EMCH (INNO-206): the first albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin to enter clinical trials. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Jun;16(6):855-66. Review. PubMed PMID: 17501697.

17: Kratz F, Ehling G, Kauffmann HM, Unger C. Acute and repeat-dose toxicity studies of the (6-maleimidocaproyl)hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin (DOXO-EMCH), an albumin-binding prodrug of the anticancer agent doxorubicin. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007 Jan;26(1):19-35. PubMed PMID: 17334177.

18: Lebrecht D, Geist A, Ketelsen UP, Haberstroh J, Setzer B, Kratz F, Walker UA. The 6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative of doxorubicin (DOXO-EMCH) is superior to free doxorubicin with respect to cardiotoxicity and mitochondrial damage. Int J Cancer. 2007 Feb 15;120(4):927-34. PubMed PMID: 17131338.

19: Di Stefano G, Lanza M, Kratz F, Merina L, Fiume L. A novel method for coupling doxorubicin to lactosaminated human albumin by an acid sensitive hydrazone bond: synthesis, characterization and preliminary biological properties of the conjugate. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004 Dec;23(4-5):393-7. PubMed PMID: 15567293.

Additional Information

Related CAS#
480998-12-7 (HCl salt); 151038-96-9 (free base) 

INNO-206 - Mechanism of action:
According to CytRx's website, the proposed mechanism of action is as the follow steps: (1) after administration, INNO-206 rapidly binds endogenous circulating albumin through the EMCH linker. (2) circulating albumin preferentially accumulates in tumors, bypassing uptake by other non-specific sites including heart, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract; (3) once albumin-bound INNO-206 reaches the tumor, the acidic environment of the tumor causes cleavage of the acid sensitive linker; (4) free doxorubicin is released at the site of the tumor.