SKQ1 (Visomitin), ethanol solution

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 314201

CAS#: 934826-68-3 (bromide)

Description: SKQ1, also known as Visomitin, plastoquinonyl decyltriphenyl phosphonium or PDTP, is a potent mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. SKQ1 is also an API for making eye drop drug called Visomitin. SKQ1 showed activities (1) to prevent amyloid-β-induced impairment of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices; (2) to reverse aging-related biomarkers in rats; (3) to slow down the development of age-dependent destructive processes in retina and vascular layer of eyes of wistar and OXYS rats; (4) to increase the lifespan of male rodents under LP or SPF conditions. SKQ1 can penetrate cell membranes , and is proposed as an anti-aging treatment. Visomitin, which API is SKQ1, is currently under clinical trials for treating glaucoma in Russia. Note: For the convenience of use, SKQ1 is supplied as solution of 200mg / mL in ethanol-water (1:1, v/v).

Chemical Structure

SKQ1 (Visomitin), ethanol solution
CAS# 934826-68-3 (bromide)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 314201
Name: SKQ1 (Visomitin), ethanol solution
CAS#: 934826-68-3 (bromide)
Chemical Formula: C36H42BrO2P
Exact Mass:
Molecular Weight: 617.61
Elemental Analysis: C, 70.01; H, 6.85; Br, 12.94; O, 5.18; P, 5.02

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
10.0mg USD 80.0 Same day
25.0mg USD 150.0 Same day
50.0mg USD 250.0 Same day
100.0mg USD 450.0 Same day
200.0mg USD 750.0 Same day
500.0mg USD 1450.0 Same day
1.0g USD 2250.0 Same day
2.0g USD 3850.0 Same day
5.0g USD 7950.0 Same day
Click to view more sizes and prices
Bulk inquiry

Related CAS #: 934826-68-3 (bromide)   934960-96-0 (cation)   1372443-45-2 (chloride)   1372443-48-5 (sulfate)   714085-40-1 (iodide)    

Synonym: SKQ1; PDTP; Plastoquinonyl decyltriphenyl phosphonium bromide;Visomitin

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (10-(4,5-dimethyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl)decyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C36H42O2P.BrH/c1-29-30(2)36(38)31(28-35(29)37)20-12-7-5-3-4-6-8-19-27-39(32-21-13-9-14-22-32,33-23-15-10-16-24-33)34-25-17-11-18-26-34;/h9-11,13-18,21-26,28H,3-8,12,19-20,27H2,1-2H3;1H/q+1;/p-1

SMILES Code: O=C(C(CCCCCCCCCC[P+](C1=CC=CC=C1)(C2=CC=CC=C2)C3=CC=CC=C3)=C4)C(C)=C(C)C4=O.[Br-]

Appearance: Yellow to light brown in ethanol solution (SKQ1, in pure form is a yellow to brown waxy / sticky and highly hydroscopic solid)

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis), supplied as 200 mg/mL solution in ethanol-wate (1:1, v/v).

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO and ethanol.

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO or ethanol.

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 617.61 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.

1: Samuilov VD, Kiselevsky DB. Effect of Cationic Plastoquinone SkQ1 on Electron Transfer Reactions in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria from Pea Seedlings. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2015 Apr;80(4):417-23. doi: 10.1134/S0006297915040045. PubMed PMID: 25869358.

2: Iomdina EN, Khoroshilova-Maslova IP, Robustova OV, Averina OA, Kovaleva NA, Aliev G, Reddy VP, Zamyatnin AA Jr, Skulachev MV, Senin II, Skulachev VP. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 reverses glaucomatous lesions in rabbits. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2015 Jan 1;20:892-901. PubMed PMID: 25553485.

3: Manskikh VN, Krasilshchikova MS, Vygodin VA, Egorov MV. Effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on development of spontaneous tumors in BALB/c mice. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2014 Oct;79(10):1136-9. doi: 10.1134/S0006297914100162. PubMed PMID: 25519073.

4: Myasoedova KN, Silachev DN. Therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in rat liver. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2014 Oct;79(10):1130-2. doi: 10.1134/S0006297914100149. PubMed PMID: 25519071.

5: Rogovin KA, Khrushcheva AM, Shekarova ON, Ushakova MV, Manskikh VN, Sokolova OV, Vasilieva NY. Effects of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative antioxidant (SkQ1) on demography of free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) kept in outdoor conditions. reproduction and lifespan: explanation in the framework of ultimate loads. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2014 Oct;79(10):1117-29. doi: 10.1134/S0006297914100137. PubMed PMID: 25519070.

6: Rogovin KA, Khrushcheva AM, Shekarova ON, Ushakova MV, Manskikh VN, Vasilieva NY. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 accelerates maturation in Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli). Biochemistry (Mosc). 2014 Oct;79(10):1111-6. doi: 10.1134/S0006297914100125. PubMed PMID: 25519069.

7: Novikova YP, Gancharova OS, Eichler OV, Philippov PP, Grigoryan EN. Preventive and therapeutic effects of SkQ1-containing Visomitin eye drops against light-induced retinal degeneration. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2014 Oct;79(10):1101-10. doi: 10.1134/S0006297914100113. PubMed PMID: 25519068.

8: Muraleva NA, Kozhevnikova OS, Zhdankina AA, Stefanova NA, Karamysheva TV, Fursova AZ, Kolosova NG. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 restores αB-crystallin expression and protects against AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats. Cell Cycle. 2014;13(22):3499-505. doi: 10.4161/15384101.2014.958393. PubMed PMID: 25483086.

9: Manskikh VN, Gancharova OS, Nikiforova AI, Krasilshchikova MS, Shabalina IG, Egorov MV, Karger EM, Milanovsky GE, Galkin II, Skulachev VP, Zinovkin RA. Age-associated murine cardiac lesions are attenuated by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1. Histol Histopathol. 2015 Mar;30(3):353-60. Epub 2014 Oct 17. PubMed PMID: 25323729.

10: Rumyantseva YV, Ryabchikova EI, Fursova AZ, Kolosova NG. Ameliorative effects of SkQ1 eye drops on cataractogenesis in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb;253(2):237-48. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2806-0. Epub 2014 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 25267419.

11: Perepechaeva ML, Grishanova AY, Rudnitskaya EA, Kolosova NG. The Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Downregulates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Genes in the Retina of OXYS Rats with AMD-Like Retinopathy. J Ophthalmol. 2014;2014:530943. doi: 10.1155/2014/530943. Epub 2014 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 25132985; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4123489.

12: Vays VB, Eldarov CM, Vangely IM, Kolosova NG, Bakeeva LE, Skulachev VP. Antioxidant SkQ1 delays sarcopenia-associated damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 Feb;6(2):140-8. PubMed PMID: 24519884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3969282.

13: Solovieva AD, Frolova OY, Solovyev AG, Morozov SY, Zamyatnin AA Jr. Effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on programmed cell death induced by viral proteins in tobacco plants. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2013 Sep;78(9):1006-12. doi: 10.1134/S000629791309006X. PubMed PMID: 24228922.

14: Stefanova NA, Muraleva NA, Skulachev VP, Kolosova NG. Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats can be partially retarded with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(3):681-94. doi: 10.3233/JAD-131034. PubMed PMID: 24047616.

15: Kapay NA, Popova OV, Isaev NK, Stelmashook EV, Kondratenko RV, Zorov DB, Skrebitsky VG, Skulachev VP. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone antioxidant SkQ1 prevents amyloid-β-induced impairment of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;36(2):377-83. doi: 10.3233/JAD-122428. PubMed PMID: 23735258.

16: Snytnikova OA, Tsentalovich YP, Stefanova NA, Fursova AZh, Kaptein R, Sagdeev RZ, Kolosova NG. The therapeutic effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 and Cistanche deserticola is associated with increased levels of tryptophan and kynurenine in the rat lens. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2012 Nov-Dec;447:300-3. doi: 10.1134/S1607672912060087. Epub 2013 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 23288574.

17: Chistyakov VA, Dem'yanenko SV, Alexandrova AA, Gutnikova LV, Prokof'ev VN, Kosheleva ON. Effect of plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) on estrous cycle and 17β-estradiol level in rats. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2012 Dec;77(12):1382-6. doi: 10.1134/S0006297912120061. PubMed PMID: 23244734.

18: Il'yasova TM, Rokitskaya TI, Severina II, Antonenko YN, Skulachev VP. Substitution of ether linkage for ester bond in phospholipids increases permeability of bilayer lipid membrane for SkQ1-type penetrating cations. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2012 Sep;77(9):1038-43. doi: 10.1134/S0006297912090118. PubMed PMID: 23157264.

19: Kolosova NG, Stefanova NA, Muraleva NA, Skulachev VP. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 but not N-acetylcysteine reverses aging-related biomarkers in rats. Aging (Albany NY). 2012 Oct;4(10):686-94. PubMed PMID: 23104863; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3517939.

20: Krementsova AV, Roshina NV, Tsybul'ko EA, Rybina OY, Symonenko AV, Pasyukova EG. Reproducible effects of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan under different experimental scenarios. Biogerontology. 2012 Dec;13(6):595-607. doi: 10.1007/s10522-012-9404-5. Epub 2012 Oct 17. PubMed PMID: 23073710.

Additional Information

Related CAS#
CAS#934826-68-3 (SKQ1 bromide);
CAS#934960-96-0 (SKQ1 cation)

Recent Work on SkQ1 and Vascular Inflammation: SkQ1 is a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, and there is evidence to show that it can modestly extend life in mice. Mitochondria are important in the aging process, and one of the ways in which they interact with surrounding cell biology is by generating damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Too much ROS creation can harm a cell, a state called oxidative stress. Just a little more than usual can be beneficial, as the cell reacts with increased housekeeping for a net benefit - this is probably one of the mechanisms by which exercise improves health, for example. This signaling is a parallel mechanism to the most important harm likely caused by mitochondrial ROS, however, which is to damage mitochondrial DNA at their point of origin. This can lead to all sorts of persistent dysfunction in a small population of cells, which export harmful molecules to surrounding tissues. Mitochondrial antioxidants probably produce benefits to long term health by reducing the rate of this mitochondrial damage, but that isn't completely certain at this point because of the ROS signaling to other important aspects of cell metabolism. Biology is complex, and as for all small effects on longevity, the actual mechanism could be any one of a number of things.  So these researchers are making use of SkQ1 as a way to better identify what exactly it is that changes in response to ROS levels, with a focus on dysfunction in blood vessel wall tissue (the vascular endothelium) that leads to age-related conditions such as atherosclerosis. (copied from