Mtt formazan

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 534812

CAS#: 23305-68-2

Description: Mtt formazan is a blue MEM-insoluble mitochondrial byproduct; used to determine viability of cells with active mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzymes.

Chemical Structure

Mtt formazan
CAS# 23305-68-2

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 534812
Name: Mtt formazan
CAS#: 23305-68-2
Chemical Formula: C18H17N5S
Exact Mass: 335.1205
Molecular Weight: 335.429
Elemental Analysis: C, 64.45; H, 5.11; N, 20.88; S, 9.56

Price and Availability

This product is not in stock, which may be available by custom synthesis. For cost-effective reason, minimum order is 1g (price is usually high, lead time is 2~3 months, depending on the technical challenge). Quote less than 1g will not be provided. To request quote, please email to sales or click below button.
Note: Price will be listed if it is available in the future.

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Synonym: Mtt formazan

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C18H17N5S/c1-13-14(2)24-18(19-13)23-22-17(15-9-5-3-6-10-15)21-20-16-11-7-4-8-12-16/h3-12,20H,1-2H3/b21-17+,23-22+

SMILES Code: CC1=C(C)N=C(/N=N/C(C2=CC=CC=C2)=N/NC3=CC=CC=C3)S1

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >3 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 335.429 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

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1: Stockert JC, Blázquez-Castro A, Cañete M, Horobin RW, Villanueva A. MTT assay for cell viability: Intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets. Acta Histochem. 2012 Dec;114(8):785-96. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2012.01.006. Epub 2012 Feb 15. PMID: 22341561.

2: Kumar P, Nagarajan A, Uchil PD. Analysis of Cell Viability by the MTT Assay. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2018 Jun 1;2018(6). doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot095505. PMID: 29858338.

3: Stockert JC, Horobin RW, Colombo LL, Blázquez-Castro A. Tetrazolium salts and formazan products in Cell Biology: Viability assessment, fluorescence imaging, and labeling perspectives. Acta Histochem. 2018 Apr;120(3):159-167. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2018.02.005. Epub 2018 Feb 26. PMID: 29496266.

4: D'Alessandro S, Corbett Y, Parapini S, Perego F, Cavicchini L, Signorini L, Delbue S, Perego C, Ferrante P, Taramelli D, Basilico N. Malaria pigment accelerates MTT - formazan exocytosis in human endothelial cells. Parasitology. 2019 Mar;146(3):399-406. doi: 10.1017/S0031182018001579. Epub 2018 Oct 1. PMID: 30269694.

5: Pascua-Maestro R, Corraliza-Gomez M, Diez-Hermano S, Perez-Segurado C, Ganfornina MD, Sanchez D. The MTT-formazan assay: Complementary technical approaches and in vivo validation in Drosophila larvae. Acta Histochem. 2018 Apr;120(3):179-186. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2018.01.006. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29395318.

6: Stepanenko AA, Dmitrenko VV. Pitfalls of the MTT assay: Direct and off-target effects of inhibitors can result in over/underestimation of cell viability. Gene. 2015 Dec 15;574(2):193-203. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.009. Epub 2015 Aug 7. PMID: 26260013.

7: Angius F, Floris A. Liposomes and MTT cell viability assay: an incompatible affair. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015 Mar;29(2):314-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2014.11.009. Epub 2014 Dec 3. PMID: 25481524.

8: Lü L, Zhang L, Wai MS, Yew DT, Xu J. Exocytosis of MTT formazan could exacerbate cell injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012 Jun;26(4):636-44. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.02.006. Epub 2012 Feb 28. PMID: 22401948.

9: Diaz G, Melis M, Musin A, Piludu M, Piras M, Falchi AM. Localization of MTT formazan in lipid droplets. An alternative hypothesis about the nature of formazan granules and aggregates. Eur J Histochem. 2007 Jul-Sep;51(3):213-8. PMID: 17921117.

10: Kreutzmann P, Wolf G, Kupsch K. Minocycline recovers MTT-formazan exocytosis impaired by amyloid beta peptide. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Oct;30(7):979-84. doi: 10.1007/s10571-010-9528-6. Epub 2010 May 9. PMID: 20455019.

11: Molinari BL, Tasat DR, Palmieri MA, Cabrini RL. Kinetics of MTT-formazan exocytosis in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Micron. 2005;36(2):177-83. doi: 10.1016/j.micron.2004.08.002. PMID: 15629649.

12: Liu Y, Peterson DA, Kimura H, Schubert D. Mechanism of cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. J Neurochem. 1997 Aug;69(2):581-93. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.69020581.x. PMID: 9231715.

13: Chakrabarti R, Kundu S, Kumar S, Chakrabarti R. Vitamin A as an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of MTT to formazan by vitamin C. J Cell Biochem. 2000 Sep 18;80(1):133-8. doi: 10.1002/1097-4644(20010101)80:1<133::aid- jcb120>;2-t. PMID: 11029760.

14: Liu Y, Schubert D. Cytotoxic amyloid peptides inhibit cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction by enhancing MTT formazan exocytosis. J Neurochem. 1997 Dec;69(6):2285-93. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.69062285.x. PMID: 9375659.

15: Fisichella M, Dabboue H, Bhattacharyya S, Saboungi ML, Salvetat JP, Hevor T, Guerin M. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhance MTT formazan exocytosis in HeLa cells and astrocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009 Jun;23(4):697-703. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.02.007. Epub 2009 Feb 28. PMID: 19254755.

16: Abe K, Saito H. Amyloid beta protein inhibits cellular MTT reduction not by suppression of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase but by acceleration of MTT formazan exocytosis in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Neurosci Res. 1998 Aug;31(4):295-305. doi: 10.1016/s0168-0102(98)00055-8. PMID: 9809588.

17: Twentyman PR, Luscombe M. A study of some variables in a tetrazolium dye (MTT) based assay for cell growth and chemosensitivity. Br J Cancer. 1987 Sep;56(3):279-85. doi: 10.1038/bjc.1987.190. PMID: 3663476; PMCID: PMC2002206.

18: Liu Y, Schubert D. Steroid hormones block amyloid fibril-induced 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan exocytosis: relationship to neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 1998 Dec;71(6):2322-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71062322.x. PMID: 9832130.

19: Comley JC, Townson S, Rees MJ, Dobinson A. The further application of MTT- formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability. Trop Med Parasitol. 1989 Sep;40(3):311-6. PMID: 2617039.

20: Newman JM, DiMaria CA, Rattigan S, Steen JT, Miller KA, Eldershaw TP, Clark MG. Relationship of MTT reduction to stimulants of muscle metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2000 Oct 16;128(2):127-40. doi: 10.1016/s0009-2797(00)00192-7. PMID: 11024452.