Carnosine free base

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 596942

CAS#: 305-84-0 (free base)

Description: Carnosine (free base) is a naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.

Chemical Structure

Carnosine free base
CAS# 305-84-0 (free base)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 596942
Name: Carnosine free base
CAS#: 305-84-0 (free base)
Chemical Formula: C9H14N4O3
Exact Mass: 226.1066
Molecular Weight: 226.23
Elemental Analysis: C, 47.78; H, 6.24; N, 24.77; O, 21.22

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
5.0g USD 270.0 2 Weeks
25.0g USD 650.0 2 Weeks
100.0g USD 1680.0 2 Weeks
100.0g USD 1680.0 2 Weeks
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Related CAS #: 305-84-0 (free base)   5852-99-3 (HCl)  

Synonym: Carnosine (free base); Karnozin; Karnozzn; L-Carnosine;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (3-aminopropanoyl)-L-histidine


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C9H14N4O3/c10-2-1-8(14)13-7(9(15)16)3-6-4-11-5-12-6/h4-5,7H,1-3,10H2,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)/t7-/m0/s1


Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Biological target: Carnosine (Karnozin) is an antioxidant naturally found in skeletal muscle, brain tissue, and the heart that protects cells against oxidative stress.
In vitro activity: Carnosine significantly inhibited EJ cell proliferation. Flow cytometric and immunoblot analyses indicated that carnosine modulated regulators of the G1 cell cycle phase, including cyclin D1, CDK4 and p21WAF1. The mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p38, but not JNK or AKT, responded to carnosine. Carnosine inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of EJ cells by inhibiting MMP-9 activity, which was associated with suppression of binding activity of NF-κB, SP-1 and AP-1. Reference: J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Dec;74:108230.
In vivo activity: In this study, senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, an age-related animal model, were used. Carnosine (100 and 200 mg kg-1 day-1) was orally administered to the mice once daily for six weeks. Behavioral tests, western blotting, and detection kits were used to evaluate the potential effects of carnosine on SAMP8 mice. Open-field and new object recognition experiments have shown that carnosine improved cognitive deficits in SAMP8 mice. Carnosine decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in SAMP8 mice. Concomitantly, western blotting results proved that carnosine increased the protein expressions of Mitofusin-1, Mitofusin-2, and Bcl-2 and reduced the protein expressions of P-Drp1, Bax, cleaved Caspase-3 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. The present data provided evidence that carnosine might improve cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice through modulating mitochondrial dysfunction. Reference: Food Funct. 2020 Mar 1;11(3):2489-2497.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Water 45.0 198.91

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 226.23 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
In vitro protocol: 1. Hwang B, Shin SS, Song JH, Choi YH, Kim WJ, Moon SK. Carnosine exerts antitumor activity against bladder cancers in vitro and in vivo via suppression of angiogenesis. J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Dec;74:108230. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108230. Epub 2019 Sep 1. PMID: 31683101. 2. Ghanbarinejad V, Ahmadi A, Niknahad H, Ommati MM, Heidari R. Carnosine Mitigates Manganese Mitotoxicity in an In Vitro Model of Isolated Brain Mitochondria. Adv Pharm Bull. 2019 Jun;9(2):294-301. doi: 10.15171/apb.2019.034. Epub 2019 Jun 1. PMID: 31380256; PMCID: PMC6664115.
In vivo protocol: 1. Dai Z , Lu XY , Zhu WL , Liu XQ , Li BY , Song L , Liu HF , Cai WW , Deng YX , Xu TT , Wang Q , Zhang SJ . Carnosine ameliorates age-related dementia via improving mitochondrial dysfunction in SAMP8 mice. Food Funct. 2020 Mar 1;11(3):2489-2497. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02453k. Epub 2020 Mar 5. PMID: 32134423. 2. Ghanbarinejad V, Ahmadi A, Niknahad H, Ommati MM, Heidari R. Carnosine Mitigates Manganese Mitotoxicity in an In Vitro Model of Isolated Brain Mitochondria. Adv Pharm Bull. 2019 Jun;9(2):294-301. doi: 10.15171/apb.2019.034. Epub 2019 Jun 1. PMID: 31380256; PMCID: PMC6664115.

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1: Fadda LM, Attia HA, Al-Rasheed NM, Ali HM, Al-Rasheed NM. Downregulation of flt-1 and HIF-1α Gene Expression by Some Antioxidants in Rats Under Sodium Nitrite-Induced Hypoxic Stress. Dose Response. 2018 May 27;16(2):1559325818776204. doi: 10.1177/1559325818776204. eCollection 2018 Apr-Jun. PubMed PMID: 29872369; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5974571.

2: Lee J, Park JR, Lee H, Jang S, Ryu SM, Kim H, Kim D, Jang A, Yang SR. L-carnosine induces apoptosis/cell cycle arrest via suppression of NF-κB/STAT1 pathway in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018 Jun 4. doi: 10.1007/s11626-018-0264-4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29869056.

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4: Ghodsi R, Kheirouri S. Carnosine and advanced glycation end products: a systematic review. Amino Acids. 2018 Jun 1. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2592-9. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 29858687.

5: Fanelli G, Gevi F, Belardo A, Zolla L. Metabolic patterns in insulin-sensitive male hypogonadism. Cell Death Dis. 2018 Apr 22;9(6):653. doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0588-8. PubMed PMID: 29844353; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5974275.

6: Zdanowska-Sąsiadek Ż, Marchewka J, Horbańczuk JO, Wierzbicka A, Lipińska P, Jóźwik A, Atanasov AG, Huminiecki Ł, Sieroń A, Sieroń K, Strzałkowska N, Stelmasiak A, De Smet S, Van Hecke T, Hoffman LC. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat. Molecules. 2018 May 25;23(6). pii: E1267. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061267. PubMed PMID: 29799493.

7: Ommati MM, Jamshidzadeh A, Heidari R, Sun Z, Zamiri MJ, Khodaei F, Mousapour S, Ahmadi F, Javanmard N, Shirazi Yeganeh B. Carnosine and Histidine Supplementation Blunt Lead-Induced Reproductive Toxicity through Antioxidative and Mitochondria-Dependent Mechanisms. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018 May 16. doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1358-2. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29767280.

8: Simonetti A, Perna A, Giudice R, Cappuccio A, Gambacorta E. The effect of high pre-slaughter environmental temperature on meat quality traits of Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano. Anim Sci J. 2018 May 9. doi: 10.1111/asj.13007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29744955.

9: Ansari FA, Khan AA, Mahmood R. Protective effect of carnosine and N-acetylcysteine against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat intestine. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2133-9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29728968.

10: Jozanović M, Sakač N, Sak-Bosnar M, Carrilho E. A simple and reliable new microchip electrophoresis method for fast measurements of imidazole dipeptides in meat from different animal species. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018 Apr 30. doi: 10.1007/s00216-018-1087-6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29707755.

11: Tiwari N, Bhatia P, Kumar A, Jaggi AS, Singh N. Potential of carnosine, a histamine precursor in rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced vascular dementia. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 20. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12376. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29676814.

12: Klepochová R, Valkovič L, Hochwartner T, Triska C, Bachl N, Tschan H, Trattnig S, Krebs M, Krššák M. Differences in Muscle Metabolism Between Triathletes and Normally Active Volunteers Investigated Using Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 7T. Front Physiol. 2018 Apr 3;9:300. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00300. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29666584; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5891578.

13: Brisola GMP, de Souza Malta E, Santiago PRP, Vieira LHP, Zagatto AM. Four Weeks of β-alanine Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Game Activities in Water Polo. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018 Apr 13:1-23. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0636. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29651862.

14: Baba SP, Zhang D, Singh M, Dassanayaka S, Xie Z, Jagatheesan G, Zhao J, Schmidtke VK, Brittian KR, Merchant ML, Conklin DJ, Jones SP, Bhatnagar A. Deficiency of aldose reductase exacerbates early pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and autophagy in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018 May;118:183-192. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2018.04.002. Epub 2018 Apr 5. PubMed PMID: 29627295.

15: Weigand T, Singler B, Fleming T, Nawroth P, Klika KD, Thiel C, Baelde H, Garbade SF, Wagner AH, Hecker M, Yard BA, Amberger A, Zschocke J, Schmitt CP, Peters V. Carnosine Catalyzes the Formation of the Oligo/Polymeric Products of Methylglyoxal. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;46(2):713-726. doi: 10.1159/000488727. Epub 2018 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 29621776.

16: Kulikova OI, Berezhnoy DS, Stvolinsky SL, Lopachev AV, Orlova VS, Fedorova TN. Neuroprotective effect of the carnosine - α-lipoic acid nanomicellar complex in a model of early-stage Parkinson's disease. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018 Jun;95:254-259. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.025. Epub 2018 Mar 28. PubMed PMID: 29601911.

17: Blancquaert L, Baguet A, Bex T, Volkaert A, Everaert I, Delanghe J, Petrovic M, Vervaet C, De Henauw S, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff P, Derave W. Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2018 Apr;119(7):759-770. doi: 10.1017/S000711451800017X. PubMed PMID: 29569535.

18: Menon K, Mousa A, de Courten B. Effects of supplementation with carnosine and other histidine-containing dipeptides on chronic disease risk factors and outcomes: protocol for a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 22;8(3):e020623. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020623. PubMed PMID: 29567852; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5875615.

19: Hoffman JR, Varanoske A, Stout JR. Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Elevation and Physiological Performance. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018;84:183-206. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.12.003. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 29555069.

20: Black MI, Jones AM, Morgan PT, Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A. The Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Muscle pH and the Power-Duration Relationship during High-Intensity Exercise. Front Physiol. 2018 Feb 21;9:111. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00111. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29515455; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5826376.