Acarbose
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MedKoo CAT#: 571466

CAS#: 56180-94-0

Description: Acarbose is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediabetes. It is an inhibitor of alpha glucosidase, an intestinal enzyme that releases glucose from larger carbohydrates, and an inhibitor of pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine. By this inhibition, acarbose reduces the rate of digestion of complex carbohydrates and acts as a starch blocker. It allows less glucose to be absorbed, decreasing blood glucose levels and reducing HbA1c level.


Chemical Structure

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Acarbose
CAS# 56180-94-0

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 571466
Name: Acarbose
CAS#: 56180-94-0
Chemical Formula: C25H43NO18
Exact Mass: 645.248
Molecular Weight: 645.61
Elemental Analysis: C, 46.51; H, 6.71; N, 2.17; O, 44.61

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
500.0mg USD 190.0 2 Weeks
1.0g USD 320.0 2 Weeks
5.0g USD 720.0 2 Weeks
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Synonym: Acarbose; Glucobay; Prandase; Precose

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (2R,3R,4R,5R)-4-(((2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-(((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-5-(((1S,4R,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl)amino)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal

InChi Key: CEMXHAPUFJOOSV-XGWNLRGSSA-N

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C25H43NO18/c1-7-13(26-9-2-8(3-27)14(33)18(37)15(9)34)17(36)20(39)24(41-7)44-23-12(6-30)42-25(21(40)19(23)38)43-22(11(32)5-29)16(35)10(31)4-28/h2,4,7,9-27,29-40H,3,5-6H2,1H3/t7-,9+,10+,11-,12-,13-,14-,15+,16-,17+,18+,19-,20-,21-,22-,23-,24-,25-/m1/s1

SMILES Code: C[C@H]1O[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]1N[C@H]2C=C([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H]2O)O)O)CO)O)O)O[C@H]3[C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](O[C@@H]3CO)O[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H](C=O)O)O)[C@@H](CO)O)O)O

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 645.61 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

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1: Yang W, Liu J, Shan Z, Tian H, Zhou Z, Ji Q, Weng J, Jia W, Lu J, Liu J, Xu Y, Yang Z, Chen W. Acarbose compared with metformin as initial therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: an open-label, non-inferiority randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Jan;2(1):46-55. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70021-4. Epub 2013 Oct 18. Erratum in: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Feb;2(2):e4. PubMed PMID: 24622668.

2: Gu S, Shi J, Tang Z, Sawhney M, Hu H, Shi L, Fonseca V, Dong H. Comparison of glucose lowering effect of metformin and acarbose in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 May 11;10(5):e0126704. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126704. eCollection 2015. Review. PubMed PMID: 25961824; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4427275.

3: Zhang YY, Hou LQ, Zhao TY. Effects of acarbose on polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2014 Jun;122(6):373-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1375676. Epub 2014 Jun 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 24941435.

4: Kim S, Jang IJ, Shin D, Shin DS, Yoon S, Lim KS, Yu KS, Li J, Zhang H, Liu Y, Brendel E, Blode H, Wang Y. Investigation of bioequivalence of a new fixed-dose combination of acarbose and metformin with the corresponding loose combination as well as the drug-drug interaction potential between both drugs in healthy adult male subjects. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014 Aug;39(4):424-31. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12166. Epub 2014 May 8. PubMed PMID: 24806030.

5: Wang G, Liu J, Yang N, Gao X, Fan H, Xu Y, Yang W. MARCH2: comparative assessment of therapeutic effects of acarbose and metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 22;9(8):e105698. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105698. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25148570; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4141807.

6: Li Y, Tong Y, Zhang Y, Huang L, Wu T, Tong N. Acarbose monotherapy and weight loss in Eastern and Western populations with hyperglycaemia: an ethnicity-specific meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Nov;68(11):1318-32. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12467. Epub 2014 May 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 24853116.

7: Hu R, Li Y, Lv Q, Wu T, Tong N. Acarbose Monotherapy and Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Eastern and Western Prediabetes: An Ethnicity-specific Meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2015 Aug;37(8):1798-812. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.05.504. Epub 2015 Jun 26. Review. PubMed PMID: 26118669.

8: Su B, Liu H, Li J, Sunli Y, Liu B, Liu D, Zhang P, Meng X. Acarbose treatment affects the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and the gut content of bifidobacteria in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. 2015 Sep;7(5):729-39. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12232. Epub 2015 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 25327485.

9: Derosa G, Franzetti I, Querci F, D'Angelo A, Maffioli P. Effect of Acarbose on Glycemic Variability in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Receiving Stable Background Therapy: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2015 Nov;35(11):983-90. doi: 10.1002/phar.1648. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 26598090.

10: Standl E, Theodorakis MJ, Erbach M, Schnell O, Tuomilehto J. On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014 Apr 16;13:81. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-13-81. Review. PubMed PMID: 24742256; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3996310.

11: Singh R, Rand JS, Coradini M, Morton JM. Effect of acarbose on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy cats fed low and high carbohydrate diets. J Feline Med Surg. 2015 Oct;17(10):848-57. doi: 10.1177/1098612X14556559. Epub 2014 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 25344379.

12: Wang JS, Huang CN, Hung YJ, Kwok CF, Sun JH, Pei D, Yang CY, Chen CC, Lin CL, Sheu WH; acarbose/metformin fixed-dose combination study investigators. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination outperforms acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Oct;102(1):16-24. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.08.001. Epub 2013 Aug 15. PubMed PMID: 23993469.

13: Weng J, Soegondo S, Schnell O, Sheu WH, Grzeszczak W, Watada H, Yamamoto N, Kalra S. Efficacy of acarbose in different geographical regions of the world: analysis of a real-life database. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 Feb;31(2):155-67. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2576. Epub 2014 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 25044702.

14: Wang MM, Lin S, Chen YM, Shu J, Lu HY, Zhang YJ, Xie RY, Zeng LY, Mu PW. Saxagliptin is similar in glycaemic variability more effective in metabolic control than acarbose in aged type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 Jun;108(3):e67-70. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.02.022. Epub 2015 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 25841300.

15: Cheng X, Peng WF, Huang L, Zhang B, Li KT. A novel osmolality-shift fermentation strategy for improving acarbose production and concurrently reducing byproduct component C formation by Actinoplanes sp. A56. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Dec;41(12):1817-21. doi: 10.1007/s10295-014-1520-6. Epub 2014 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 25297470.

16: Jalalvand F, Amoli MM, Yaghmaei P, Kimiagar M, Ebrahim-Habibi A. Acarbose versus trans-chalcone: comparing the effect of two glycosidase inhibitors on obese mice. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun;59(3):202-9. doi: 10.1590/2359-3997000000038. PubMed PMID: 26154086.

17: Joshi SR, Ramachandran A, Chadha M, Chatterjee S, Rathod R, Kalra S. Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination in the management of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Aug;15(11):1611-20. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2014.932771. Epub 2014 Jun 25. Review. PubMed PMID: 24963542.

18: Tamasawa A, Mochizuki K, Hariya N, Saito M, Ishida H, Doguchi S, Yanagiya S, Osonoi T. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Sep 5;762:96-101. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.04.051. Epub 2015 May 9. PubMed PMID: 25962664.

19: Lee MY, Choi DS, Lee MK, Lee HW, Park TS, Kim DM, Chung CH, Kim DK, Kim IJ, Jang HC, Park YS, Kwon HS, Lee SH, Shin HK. Comparison of acarbose and voglibose in diabetes patients who are inadequately controlled with basal insulin treatment: randomized, parallel, open-label, active-controlled study. J Korean Med Sci. 2014 Jan;29(1):90-7. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.90. Epub 2013 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 24431911; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3890482.

20: Rocha-Honor E, Polo-Romero FJ, Sánchez-Beteta P, Martínez-Peguero J, Santisteban-López Y, Beato-Pérez JL. [Acarbose and propofol: a dangerous combination?]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2014 Feb;61(2):109-11. doi: 10.1016/j.redar.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Dec 29. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 23276378.

Acarbose

500.0mg / USD 190.0