Remdesivir
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MedKoo CAT#: 329511

CAS#: 1809249-37-3 (free base)

Description: Remdesivir, also known as GS-5734, is a prodrug form of the antiviral nucleoside analog GS-44152. Upon entry into cells, remdesivir is metabolized into the nucleotide triphosphate GS-441524. Remdesivir inhibits murine hepatitis virus (MHV) with an EC50 of 30 nM, and blocks SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in HAE cells with EC50s of both 74 nM in HAE cells after treatment for 24 h. GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. It was developed as a treatment for filovirus infections such as Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus. Remdesivir was approved for treatment of COVID-19. *** WARNING: Our product Remdesivir is a Pure chemical in Powder form for laboratory research use only, NOT FOR HUMAN OR PATIENT USE


Chemical Structure

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Remdesivir
CAS# 1809249-37-3 (free base)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 329511
Name: Remdesivir
CAS#: 1809249-37-3 (free base)
Chemical Formula: C27H35N6O8P
Exact Mass: 602.2254
Molecular Weight: 602.58
Elemental Analysis: C, 53.82; H, 5.85; N, 13.95; O, 21.24; P, 5.14

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
10.0mg USD 90.0 Ready to ship
25.0mg USD 150.0 Ready to ship
100.0mg USD 250.0 Ready to ship
200.0mg USD 450.0 Ready to ship
500.0mg USD 950.0 Ready to Ship
1.0g USD 1650.0 Ready to ship
2.0g USD 2950.0 Ready to Ship
5.0g USD 6450.0 Ready to ship
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Related CAS #: 1809249-37-3 (free base)   2250110-53-1 (maleate)  

Synonym: Remdesivir; GS-5734; GS 5734; GS5734, Prodrug of GS-441524; Prodrug of GS441524; Prodrug of GS441524;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 2-ethylbutyl ((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate

InChi Key: RWWYLEGWBNMMLJ-YSOARWBDSA-N

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C27H35N6O8P/c1-4-18(5-2)13-38-26(36)17(3)32-42(37,41-19-9-7-6-8-10-19)39-14-21-23(34)24(35)27(15-28,40-21)22-12-11-20-25(29)30-16-31-33(20)22/h6-12,16-18,21,23-24,34-35H,4-5,13-14H2,1-3H3,(H,32,37)(H2,29,30,31)/t17-,21+,23+,24+,27-,42-/m0/s1

SMILES Code: C[C@H](N[P@@](OC1=CC=CC=C1)(OC[C@H]2O[C@@](C#N)(C3=CC=C4C(N)=NC=NN43)[C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)=O)C(OCC(CC)CC)=O

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)..

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Biological target: Nucleoside analogue with effective antiviral activity and is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro. 2.
In vitro activity: In vitro, Remdesivir (RDV) exhibited antiviral activity against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 in primary human airway epithelial cells with a half-maximal effective concentration of 9.9 nM and also potently (280 nM) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Calu-3 human lung cells. In biochemical assays assessing RDV-triphosphate incorporation by the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complexes, RDV triphosphate was selectively incorporated over the natural nucleotide substrate adenosine triphosphate and inhibited viral RNA synthesis with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of 32 nM for MERS-CoV. Reference: Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Mar 30 : 1–15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007387/ 2.
In vivo activity: In vivo, Remdesivir (RDV) showed therapeutic efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus monkeys and prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus monkeys. Briefly, 12 h after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, rhesus monkeys received an RDV 10-mg/kg IV loading dose followed by maintenance doses of RDV 5 mg/kg at 24 h post-inoculation and once daily thereafter for a total of 6 days of treatment. The aim of the loading dose was to rapidly generate high GS-443902 concentrations following the first dose. Treatment with this regimen resulted in a significant reduction in clinical signs of respiratory disease, lung pathology and gross lung lesions, and viral RNA levels compared with vehicle-treated animals. Reference: Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Mar 30 : 1–15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007387/ 2.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
DMSO 60.0 100.0
DMF
Ethanol 12.0 20.0

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 602.58 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

Formulation for in vivo study

Option 1: (1). Formulation for in vivo study (Author from NIH): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104368/ ....treated with 5 mg/kg remdesivir in vehicle solution (5 mg/mL 12% sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin in water and hydrochloric acid, pH3.5)
Option 2: (2). Formulation for in vivo study ( Author from CDC) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732787/ One group of animals received remdesivir (10 mg/kg) (Gilead Sciences) in vehicle solution [12% sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin in water and hydrochloric acid (pH 3.5)]
Formulation protocol: 1. Humeniuk R, Mathias A, Kirby BJ, Lutz JD, Cao H, Osinusi A, Babusis D, Porter D, Wei X, Ling J, Reddy YS, German P. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Interaction Profile of Remdesivir, a SARS-CoV-2 Replication Inhibitor. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Mar 30:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-00984-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33782830; PMCID: PMC8007387. 2. Buckland MS, Galloway JB, Fhogartaigh CN, Meredith L, Provine NM, Bloor S, Ogbe A, Zelek WM, Smielewska A, Yakovleva A, Mann T, Bergamaschi L, Turner L, Mescia F, Toonen EJM, Hackstein CP, Akther HD, Vieira VA, Ceron-Gutierrez L, Periselneris J, Kiani-Alikhan S, Grigoriadou S, Vaghela D, Lear SE, Török ME, Hamilton WL, Stockton J, Quick J, Nelson P, Hunter M, Coulter TI, Devlin L; CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration; MRC-Toxicology Unit COVID-19 Consortium, Bradley JR, Smith KGC, Ouwehand WH, Estcourt L, Harvala H, Roberts DJ, Wilkinson IB, Screaton N, Loman N, Doffinger R, Lyons PA, Morgan BP, Goodfellow IG, Klenerman P, Lehner PJ, Matheson NJ, Thaventhiran JED. Treatment of COVID-19 with remdesivir in the absence of humoral immunity: a case report. Nat Commun. 2020 Dec 14;11(1):6385. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19761-2. PMID: 33318491; PMCID: PMC7736571. 3.
In vitro protocol: 1. Humeniuk R, Mathias A, Kirby BJ, Lutz JD, Cao H, Osinusi A, Babusis D, Porter D, Wei X, Ling J, Reddy YS, German P. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Interaction Profile of Remdesivir, a SARS-CoV-2 Replication Inhibitor. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Mar 30:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-00984-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33782830; PMCID: PMC8007387. 2.
In vivo protocol: 1. Humeniuk R, Mathias A, Kirby BJ, Lutz JD, Cao H, Osinusi A, Babusis D, Porter D, Wei X, Ling J, Reddy YS, German P. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Interaction Profile of Remdesivir, a SARS-CoV-2 Replication Inhibitor. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Mar 30:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-00984-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33782830; PMCID: PMC8007387. 2. Buckland MS, Galloway JB, Fhogartaigh CN, Meredith L, Provine NM, Bloor S, Ogbe A, Zelek WM, Smielewska A, Yakovleva A, Mann T, Bergamaschi L, Turner L, Mescia F, Toonen EJM, Hackstein CP, Akther HD, Vieira VA, Ceron-Gutierrez L, Periselneris J, Kiani-Alikhan S, Grigoriadou S, Vaghela D, Lear SE, Török ME, Hamilton WL, Stockton J, Quick J, Nelson P, Hunter M, Coulter TI, Devlin L; CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration; MRC-Toxicology Unit COVID-19 Consortium, Bradley JR, Smith KGC, Ouwehand WH, Estcourt L, Harvala H, Roberts DJ, Wilkinson IB, Screaton N, Loman N, Doffinger R, Lyons PA, Morgan BP, Goodfellow IG, Klenerman P, Lehner PJ, Matheson NJ, Thaventhiran JED. Treatment of COVID-19 with remdesivir in the absence of humoral immunity: a case report. Nat Commun. 2020 Dec 14;11(1):6385. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19761-2. PMID: 33318491; PMCID: PMC7736571. 3.

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Remdesivir, supplied by MedKoo, has been cited in below publications: 1. Pasupuleti RR, Tsai PC, Ponnusamy VK, Pugazhendhi A. Rapid determination of remdesivir (SARS-CoV-2 drug) in human plasma for therapeutic drug monitoring in COVID-19-Patients. Process Biochem. 2021 Mar;102:150-156. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2020.12.014. Epub 2020 Dec 25. PMID: 33390763; PMCID: PMC7762619. 2. Sawittree Sahakijpijarn, Chaeho Moon, Zachary N. Warnken, Esther Y. Maier, Jennie E. DeVore, Dale J. Christensen, John J. Koleng, Robert O. Williams, In vivo pharmacokinetic study of remdesivir dry powder for inhalation in hamsters, International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X, Volume 3, 2021, 100073, ISSN 2590-1567, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpx.2021.100073. 3. Matthew A. Schaller, Yamini Sharma, Zadia Dupee, Duy Nguyen, Juan Uruena, Ryan Smolchek, Julia C. Loeb, Tiago N. Machuca, In vitro infection of human lung tissue with SARS-CoV-2: Heterogeneity in host defense and therapeutic response. BioRxiv. doi : https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.20.427541 4. Baggen J, Persoons L, Vanstreels E, Jansen S, Van Looveren D, Boeckx B, Geudens V, De Man J, Jochmans D, Wauters J, Wauters E, Vanaudenaerde BM, Lambrechts D, Neyts J, Dallmeier K, Thibaut HJ, Jacquemyn M, Maes P, Daelemans D. Genome-wide CRISPR screening identifies TMEM106B as a proviral host factor for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Genet. 2021 Mar 8. doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00805-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33686287. 5. Schultz DC, Johnson RM, Ayyanathan K, Miller J, Whig K, Kamalia B, Dittmar M, Weston S, Hammond HL, Dillen C, Ardanuy J, Taylor L, Lee JS, Li M, Lee E, Shoffler C, Petucci C, Constant S, Ferrer M, Thaiss CA, Frieman MB, Cherry S. Pyrimidine inhibitors synergize with nucleoside analogues to block SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2022 Apr;604(7904):134-140. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04482-x. Epub 2022 Feb 7. PMID: 35130559. 6. Carreño JM, Alshammary H, Tcheou J, Singh G, Raskin AJ, Kawabata H, Sominsky LA, Clark JJ, Adelsberg DC, Bielak DA, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Dambrauskas N, Vigdorovich V; PSP-PARIS Study Group, Srivastava K, Sather DN, Sordillo EM, Bajic G, van Bakel H, Simon V, Krammer F. Activity of convalescent and vaccine serum against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron. Nature. 2022 Feb;602(7898):682-688. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04399-5. Epub 2021 Dec 31. PMID: 35016197. 7. Ashok Chakraborty Ph.D.1*, Anil Diwan Ph.D.2, Vinod Arora Ph.D.1, Yogesh Thakur MS.1, Preetam Holkar MS.1, and Vijetha Chiniga MS1 Nanoviricides Platform Technology Based NV-387 Polymer Protects Remdesivir from Plasma-Mediated Catabolism In vitro: Importance of its Increased Lifetime for In vivo Action. Recent Adv Clin Trials, 2021. 1(1)-108. 8. Bafna K, White K, Harish B, Rosales R, Ramelot TA, Acton TB, Moreno E, Kehrer T, Miorin L, Royer CA, García-Sastre A, Krug RM, Montelione GT. Hepatitis C virus drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease synergize with remdesivir to suppress viral replication in cell culture. Cell Rep. 2021 May 18;35(7):109133. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109133. Epub 2021 Apr 27. PMID: 33984267; PMCID: PMC8075848. 9. Carreño JM, Alshammary H, Singh G, Raskin A, Amanat F, Amoako A, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, van de Guchte A, Study Group P, Srivastava K, Sordillo EM, Sather DN, van Bakel H, Krammer F, Simon V. Evidence for retained spike-binding and neutralizing activity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants in serum of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine recipients. EBioMedicine. 2021 Nov;73:103626. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103626. Epub 2021 Oct 20. PMID: 34688034; PMCID: PMC8527879. 10. Sahakijpijarn S, Moon C, Koleng JJ, Christensen DJ, Williams Iii RO. Development of Remdesivir as a Dry Powder for Inhalation by Thin Film Freezing. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Oct 22;12(11):1002. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12111002. PMID: 33105618; PMCID: PMC7690377. 11. Sahakijpijarn S, Moon C, Warnken ZN, Maier EY, DeVore JE, Christensen DJ, Koleng JJ, Williams RO 3rd. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of remdesivir dry powder for inhalation in hamsters. Int J Pharm X. 2021 Feb 27;3:100073. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpx.2021.100073. PMID: 34977555; PMCID: PMC8683664. 12. Ramsey JD, Stewart IE, Madden EA, Lim C, Hwang D, Heise MT, Hickey AJ, Kabanov AV. Nanoformulated Remdesivir with Extremely Low Content of Poly(2-oxazoline)-Based Stabilizer for Aerosol Treatment of COVID-19. Macromol Biosci. 2022 May 8:e2200056. doi: 10.1002/mabi.202200056. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35526106. 13. Stone NE, Jaramillo SA, Jones AN, Vazquez AJ, Martz M, Versluis LM, Raniere MO, Nunnally HE, Zarn KE, Nottingham R, Ng KR, Sahl JW, Wagner DM, Knudsen S, Settles EW, Keim P, French CT. Stenoparib, an Inhibitor of Cellular Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase, Blocks Replication of the SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 Human Coronaviruses In Vitro. mBio. 2021 Jan 19;12(1):e03495-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.03495-20. PMID: 33468703; PMCID: PMC7845641. 14. Xie J, Wang Z. Can remdesivir and its parent nucleoside GS-441524 be potential oral drugs? An in vitro and in vivo DMPK assessment. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2021 Jun;11(6):1607-1616. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2021.03.028. Epub 2021 Mar 22. PMID: 34221871; PMCID: PMC8245906. 15. Chiba S, Kiso M, Nakajima N, Iida S, Maemura T, Kuroda M, Sato Y, Ito M, Okuda M, Yamada S, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Watanabe T, Imai M, Armbrust T, Baric RS, Halfmann PJ, Suzuki T, Kawaoka Y. Co-administration of Favipiravir and the Remdesivir Metabolite GS-441524 Effectively Reduces SARS-CoV-2 Replication in the Lungs of the Syrian Hamster Model. mBio. 2022 Feb 1;13(1):e0304421. doi: 10.1128/mbio.03044-21. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35100870; PMCID: PMC8805032. 16. Schaller MA, Sharma Y, Dupee Z, Nguyen D, Urueña J, Smolchek R, Loeb JC, Machuca TN, Lednicky JA, Odde DJ, Campbell RF, Sawyer WG, Mehrad B. Ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lung reveals heterogeneous host defense and therapeutic responses. JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 22;6(18):e148003. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.148003. PMID: 34357881; PMCID: PMC8492301. 17. Al-Moubarak E, Sharifi M, Hancox JC. In silico Exploration of Interactions Between Potential COVID-19 Antiviral Treatments and the Pore of the hERG Potassium Channel-A Drug Antitarget. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 May 4;8:645172. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.645172. PMID: 34017865; PMCID: PMC8129016. 18. Ho JSY, Mok BW, Campisi L, Jordan T, Yildiz S, Parameswaran S, Wayman JA, Gaudreault NN, Meekins DA, Indran SV, Morozov I, Trujillo JD, Fstkchyan YS, Rathnasinghe R, Zhu Z, Zheng S, Zhao N, White K, Ray-Jones H, Malysheva V, Thiecke MJ, Lau SY, Liu H, Zhang AJ, Lee AC, Liu WC, Jangra S, Escalera A, Aydillo T, Melo BS, Guccione E, Sebra R, Shum E, Bakker J, Kaufman DA, Moreira AL, Carossino M, Balasuriya UBR, Byun M, Albrecht RA, Schotsaert M, Garcia-Sastre A, Chanda SK, Miraldi ER, Jeyasekharan AD, TenOever BR, Spivakov M, Weirauch MT, Heinz S, Chen H, Benner C, Richt JA, Marazzi I. TOP1 inhibition therapy protects against SARS-CoV-2-induced lethal inflammation. Cell. 2021 May 13;184(10):2618-2632.e17. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.051. Epub 2021 Mar 30. PMID: 33836156; PMCID: PMC8008343. 19. González-Domínguez I, Martínez JL, Slamanig S, Lemus N, Liu Y, Lai TY, Carreño JM, Singh G, Singh G, Schotsaert M, Mena I, McCroskery S, Coughlan L, Krammer F, García-Sastre A, Palese P, Sun W. Trivalent NDV-HXP-S Vaccine Protects against Phylogenetically Distant SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern in Mice. Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Jun 29;10(3):e0153822. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.01538-22. Epub 2022 Jun 6. PMID: 35658571; PMCID: PMC9241906. 20. Dittmar M, Lee JS, Whig K, Segrist E, Li M, Kamalia B, Castellana L, Ayyanathan K, Cardenas-Diaz FL, Morrisey EE, Truitt R, Yang W, Jurado K, Samby K, Ramage H, Schultz DC, Cherry S. Drug repurposing screens reveal cell-type-specific entry pathways and FDA-approved drugs active against SARS-Cov-2. Cell Rep. 2021 Apr 6;35(1):108959. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108959. Epub 2021 Mar 23. PMID: 33811811; PMCID: PMC7985926. 21-Wang Y, Soto-Acosta R, Ding R, Chen L, Geraghty RJ. Anti-HCMV activity by an irreversible p97 inhibitor LC-1310. Med Chem Res. 2021;30(2):440-448. doi: 10.1007/s00044-020-02679-1. Epub 2021 Jan 9. PMID: 33456290; PMCID: PMC7794631. 22. 23.

1: Grundmann A, Wu CH, Hardwick M, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJ, Semple MG, Böhning D, Pett S, Michael BD, Thomas RH, Galea I; ISARIC4C investigators. Fewer COVID-19 neurological complications with dexamethasone and remdesivir. Ann Neurol. 2022 Oct 19. doi: 10.1002/ana.26536. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36261315.

2: Nevalainen OPO, Horstia S, Laakkonen S, Rutanen J, Mustonen JMJ, Kalliala IEJ, Ansakorpi H, Kreivi HR, Kuutti P, Paajanen J, Parkkila S, Paukkeri EL, Perola M, Pourjamal N, Renner A, Rosberg T, Rutanen T, Savolainen J; Solidarity Finland Investigators, Haukka JK, Guyatt GH, Tikkinen KAO. Effect of remdesivir post hospitalization for COVID-19 infection from the randomized SOLIDARITY Finland trial. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 18;13(1):6152. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-33825-5. PMID: 36257950.

3: Tsuji M. Virtual Screening and Quantum Chemistry Analysis for SARS-CoV-2 RNA- Dependent RNA Polymerase Using the ChEMBL Database: Reproduction of the Remdesivir-RTP and Favipiravir-RTP Binding Modes Obtained from Cryo-EM Experiments with High Binding Affinity. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 20;23(19):11009. doi: 10.3390/ijms231911009. PMID: 36232311; PMCID: PMC9570209.

4: Jaroszewicz J, Kowalska J, Pawłowska M, Rogalska M, Zarębska-Michaluk D, Rorat M, Lorenc B, Czupryna P, Sikorska K, Piekarska A, Dworzańska A, Zaleska I, Mazur W, Kozielewicz D, Kłos K, Podlasin R, Angielski G, Oczko-Grzesik B, Figlerowicz M, Szetela B, Bolewska B, Frańczak-Chmura P, Flisiak R, Tomasiewicz K. Remdesivir Decreases Mortality in COVID-19 Patients with Active Malignancy. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Sep 28;14(19):4720. doi: 10.3390/cancers14194720. PMID: 36230641; PMCID: PMC9563758.

5: Murton M, Drane E, Jarrett J, Cornely OA, Soriano A. Remdesivir-related cost- effectiveness and cost and resource use evidence in COVID-19: a systematic review. Infection. 2022 Oct 12:1–19. doi: 10.1007/s15010-022-01930-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36224452; PMCID: PMC9555695.

6: Poudel TN, Panda S, Orimoloye M, Hegde P, Aldrich CC. 1'-Cyano Intermediate Enables Rapid and Stereoretentive Access to 1'-Modified Remdesivir Nucleosides. J Org Chem. 2022 Oct 12. doi: 10.1021/acs.joc.2c01897. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36223099.

7: Manabe S, Mizuno S, Jinda T, Kasai M. Safety of remdesivir in 20 children with COVID-19 -case series. Biol Pharm Bull. 2022 Oct 8. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b22-00470. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36216548.

8: Taggarsi DA. Is It Time to Revisit Remdesivir Use for Severe COVID-19? Indian J Crit Care Med. 2022 Sep;26(9):983-984. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24317. PMID: 36213702; PMCID: PMC9492745.

9: Panda R, Singh P, Jain G, Saigal S, Karna ST, Anand A, Kodamanchili S, Brahmam D, Jha S, Shivhare A. Effect of Remdesivir Administration on Occurrence of Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Critically Ill COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Observational Study. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2022 Sep;26(9):993-999. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24189. PMID: 36213699; PMCID: PMC9492744.

10: Chen CH, Chang KC, Lin YN, Ho MW, Cheng MY, Shih WH, Chou CH, Lin PC, Chi CY, Lu MC, Tien N, Wu MY, Chang SS, Hsu WH, Shyu WC, Cho DY, Jeng LB. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy on top of triple therapy with remdesivir, dexamethasone, and tocilizumab improves PaO2/FiO2 in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Sep 23;9:1001979. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.1001979. PMID: 36213639; PMCID: PMC9537613.

11: Lin K, Gausman V, Poles M, Popov V. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Remdesivir in the Treatment of COVID-19. ACG Case Rep J. 2022 Oct 6;9(10):e00866. doi: 10.14309/crj.0000000000000866. PMID: 36212242; PMCID: PMC9534366.

12: Cacho J, Burgos E, Molina M, Villegas A, Pérez M, Cañas L, Taco O, Juega J, Lauzurica R. Remdesivir in kidney transplant patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Nefrologia (Engl Ed). 2022 May-Jun;42(3):311-317. doi: 10.1016/j.nefroe.2022.07.006. Epub 2022 Aug 2. PMID: 36210620; PMCID: PMC9343742.

13: Lee TC, McDonald EG. 'Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19' - Author's reply. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2022 Oct 4:S1198-743X(22)00512-2. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2022.09.020. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36206866.

14: Beccacece A, Bartoli TA, Nicastri E. Re: 'Remdesivir for the Treatment of COVID-19' by Lee et al. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2022 Oct 4:S1198-743X(22)00503-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2022.09.015. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36206865; PMCID: PMC9531359.

15: Kuraoka N, Hashimoto S, Matsui S. Remdesivir-Induced Pancreatitis in a Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019. Pancreas. 2022 Jul 1;51(6):e88-e89. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000002088. PMID: 36206474.

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Additional Information

(1). formulation for in vivo study (Author from NIH):
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104368/
....treated with 5 mg/kg remdesivir in vehicle solution (5 mg/mL 12% sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin in water and hydrochloric acid, pH3.5)

(2). formulation for in vivo study ( Author from CDC)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732787/
One group of animals received remdesivir (10 mg/kg) (Gilead Sciences) in vehicle solution [12% sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin in water and hydrochloric acid (pH 3.5)]

(3)