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MedKoo CAT#: 201824
Description: Nemorubicin, also known as PNU152243A, is a doxorubicin derivative that differs significantly from its parent drug in terms of spectrum of antitumor activity, metabolism and toxicity profile. The drug is active on tumors resistant to alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors and platinum derivatives. It works primarily through topoisomerase I inhibition. Of note, Nemorubicin is active in cells with upregulation of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, where current therapies fail. Nemorubicin is biotransformed in the liver into cytotoxic metabolites that may further contribute to render this drug highly active against primary liver tumors or liver metastases.
MedKoo Cat#: 201824
Chemical Formula: C32H37NO13
Exact Mass: 643.22649
Molecular Weight: 643.63
Elemental Analysis: C, 59.71; H, 5.79; N, 2.18; O, 32.32
Synonym: PNU152243A; PNU-152243A; PNU 152243A; Nemorubicin, methoxymorpholinyl-doxorubicin
IUPAC/Chemical Name: (8S,10S)-6,8,11-trihydroxy-10-(((2R,4S,5S,6S)-5-hydroxy-4-((S)-2-methoxymorpholino)-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)-8-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-1-methoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrotetracene-5,12-dione.
InChi Key: CTMCWCONSULRHO-UHQPFXKFSA-N
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C32H37NO13/c1-14-27(36)17(33-7-8-44-22(12-33)43-3)9-21(45-14)46-19-11-32(41,20(35)13-34)10-16-24(19)31(40)26-25(29(16)38)28(37)15-5-4-6-18(42-2)23(15)30(26)39/h4-6,14,17,19,21-22,27,34,36,38,40-41H,7-13H2,1-3H3/t14-,17-,19-,21-,22-,27+,32-/m0/s1
SMILES Code: O=C1C2=C(O)C(C[C@](C(CO)=O)(O)C[C@@H]3O[C@H]4C[C@H](N5C[C@@H](OC)OCC5)[C@H](O)[C@H](C)O4)=C3C(O)=C2C(C6=C1C=CC=C6OC)=O
Nemorubicin is a 3′-deamino-3′[2-(S)-methoxy-4-morpholinyl] derivative of doxorubicin. This derivative has been synthesized in the early 1990s by the Farmitalia Carlo Erba Research Center in Italy. The idea was to develop doxorubicin analogues able to circumvent the emergence of chemoresistance, in particular the multi-drug resistance. The drug was reported to be active in vitro against both murine and human tumor cells resistant to doxorubicin. Similar results were obtained when the drug was administered in vivo to mice bearing multi-drug resistant tumors. The compound retained the same activity also in alkylating agents and topoisomerase II resistant tumors and showed an increased potency relative to the parent drug doxorubicin. It is metabolized via P450 CYP3A enzyme to an extremely cytotoxic derivative. Both nemorubicin and its metabolite have a mechanism of action different from that of doxorubicin, with a key role played by the nucleotide excision repair system. The drug is actively tested in clinics as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin.
Nemorubicin is a DNA-intercalator, topoisomerase I inhibitor, effective on a broad spectrum of tumour models and significantly different from other anthracyclines. The compound is active on selected tumours resistant to current treatment. Overall more than 300 patients have been treated in Europe, USA and China with nemorubicin given at different dose-schedules and by different routes of administration. Additional studies in Ph I/II are ongoing. (source: http://www.nervianoms.com/cont/en/news/0806/0300/three-nerviano-medical-sciences-mol.asp?a=1).
1: Mazzini S, Scaglioni L, Mondelli R, Caruso M, Sirtori FR. The interaction of nemorubicin metabolite PNU-159682 with DNA fragments d(CGTACG)(2), d(CGATCG)(2) and d(CGCGCG)(2) shows a strong but reversible binding to G:C base pairs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 Dec 15;20(24):6979-88. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.10.033. Epub 2012 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 23154079.
2: Sabatino MA, Marabese M, Ganzinelli M, Caiola E, Geroni C, Broggini M. Down-regulation of the nucleotide excision repair gene XPG as a new mechanism of drug resistance in human and murine cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2010 Sep 24;9:259. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-259. PubMed PMID: 20868484; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2955619.
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4: Quintieri L, Fantin M, Palatini P, De Martin S, Rosato A, Caruso M, Geroni C, Floreani M. In vitro hepatic conversion of the anticancer agent nemorubicin to its active metabolite PNU-159682 in mice, rats and dogs: a comparison with human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Sep 15;76(6):784-95. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2008.07.003. Epub 2008 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 18671948.
5: Broggini M. Nemorubicin. Top Curr Chem. 2008;283:191-206. doi: 10.1007/128_2007_6. PubMed PMID: 23605633.
6: Sessa C, Valota O, Geroni C. Ongoing phase I and II studies of novel anthracyclines. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2007;7(2):75-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 17652808.
7: Quintieri L, Geroni C, Fantin M, Battaglia R, Rosato A, Speed W, Zanovello P, Floreani M. Formation and antitumor activity of PNU-159682, a major metabolite of nemorubicin in human liver microsomes. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 15;11(4):1608-17. PubMed PMID: 15746066.
8: Fraier D, Frigerio E, Brianceschi G, James CA. LC-MS-MS determination of nemorubicin (methoxymorpholinyldoxorubicin, PNU-152243A) and its 13-OH metabolite (PNU-155051A) in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002 Oct 15;30(3):377-89. PubMed PMID: 12367663.