WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.
MedKoo CAT#: 100160
Description: Cisplatin is an inorganic platinum agent (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) with antineoplastic activity. Cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition.
MedKoo Cat#: 100160
Chemical Formula: Cl2H6N2Pt
Molecular Weight: 300.05
Elemental Analysis: Cl, 23.63; H, 2.02; N, 9.34; Pt, 65.02
Synonym: CACP; cisDDP; cisdiamminedichloro platinum (II); cisdiamminedichloroplatinum; Cisdichloroammine Platinum (II); Cismaplat; Cisplatina; cisplatinous diamine dichloride; cisplatinum; cisplatinum II; cisplatinum II diamine dichloride; CPDD; Cysplatyna; DDP; PDD; Peyrones Chloride; Peyrones Salt; Platinoxan; platinum diamminodichloride; US brand names: Platinol; PlatinolAQ; Foreign brand names: Abiplatin; Blastolem; Briplatin; Cisplatyl; Citoplatino; Citosin; Lederplatin; Metaplatin; Neoplatin; Placis; Platamine; Platiblastin; PlatiblastinS; Platinex; Platinol AQ; PlatinolAQ VHA Plus; Platiran; Platistin; Platosin; Abbreviations: CDDP; DDP.
IUPAC/Chemical Name: (SP-4-2)-diamminedichloroplatinum; platinum, diaminedichloro-, cis-
InChi Key: LXZZYRPGZAFOLE-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChi Code: InChI=1S/2ClH.2H3N.Pt/h2*1H;2*1H3;/q;;;;+2/p-2
SMILES Code: Cl[Pt-2]([NH3+])([NH3+])Cl
The compound cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 was first described by M. Peyrone in 1845, and known for a long time as Peyrone's salt. The structure was deduced by Alfred Werner in 1893. In 1965, Barnett Rosenberg, van Camp et al. at Michigan State University discovered that electrolysis of a platinum electrode produced cisplatin, which inhibited binary fission in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The bacteria was unable to divide while cell growth remained normal; this caused the bacteria to grow 300 times its normal length. Rosenberg then conducted a series of experiments to test the effects of various platinum coordination complexes on human leukemias cells (L1210) and on sarcomas artificially implanted in rats. This study found that cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 was the most effective out of this group, which started the medicinal career of cisplatin. Approved for clinical use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1978, it revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. Detailed studies on its molecular mechanism of action, using a variety of spectroscopic methods including X-ray, NMR spectroscopy, and other physico-chemical methods, revealed its ability to form irreversible crosslinks with bases in DNA. see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisplatin.
Cisplatin Injection is a sterile aqueous solution, available in 50, 100 and 200 mL multiple dose vials, each mL containing 1 mg of cisplatin and 9 mg sodium chloride in water for injection. HCI and/or sodium hydroxide added to adjust pH to 3.5 to 4.5. Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) is a heavy metal complex containing a central atom of platinum surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in the cis position. It is a white powder with the molecular formula PtCl2H6N2, and a molecular weight of 300.05. It is soluble in water or saline at 1 mg/mL and in dimethylformamide at 24 mg/mL. It has a melting point of 207Â°C.
Plasma concentrations of the parent compound, cisplatin, decay monoexponentially with a half-life of about 20 to 30 minutes following bolus administration of 50 or 100 mg/m2 doses. Monoexponential decay and plasma half-lives of about 0.5 hour are also seen following two hour or seven hour infusions of 100 mg/m2. After the latter, the total-body clearances and volumes of distribution at steady-state for cis-platin are about 15 to 16 L/h/m2 and 11 to 12 L/m2. Due to its unique chemical structure, the chlorine atoms of cisplatin are more subject to chemical displacement reactions by nucleophiles, such as water or sulfhydryl groups, than to enzyme-catalyzed metabolism. At physiological pH in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, the predominant molecular species are cisplatin and monohydroxymonochloro cis-diammine platinum (II) in nearly equal concentrations. The latter, combined with the possible direct displacement of the chlorine atoms by sulfhydryl groups of amino acids or proteins, accounts for the instability of cisplatin in biological matrices. The ratios of cisplatin to total free (ultrafilterable) platinum in the plasma vary considerably between patients and range from 0.5 to 1.1 after a dose of 100 mg/m2. Cisplatin does not undergo the instantaneous and reversible binding to plasma proteins that is characteristic of normal drug-protein binding. However, the platinum from cisplatin, but not cisplatin itself, becomes bound to several plasma proteins including albumin, transterrin, and gamma globulin. Three hours after a bolus injection and two hours after the end of a three-hour infusion, 90% of the plasma platinum is protein bound. The complexes between albumin and the platinum from cisplatin do not dissociate to a significant extent and are slowly eliminated with a minimum half-life of five days or more. Following cisplatin doses of 20 to 120 mg/m2, the concentrations of platinum are highest in liver, prostate, and kidney, somewhat lower in bladder, muscle, testicle, pancreas, and spleen and lowest in bowel, adrenal, heart, lung, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Platinum is present in tissues for as long as 180 days after the last administration. With the exception of intracerebral tumors, platinum concentrations in tumors are generally somewhat lower than the concentrations in the organ where the tumor is located. Different metastatic sites in the same patient may have different platinum concentrations. Hepatic metastases have the highest platinum concentrations, but these are similar to the platinum concentrations in normal liver. Maximum red blood cell concentrations of platinum are reached within 90 to 150 minutes after a 100 mg/m2 dose of cisplatin and decline in a biphasic manner with a terminal half-life of 36 to 47 days.